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    实用综合教程第二版3-unit5-电子教案.ppt

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    实用综合教程第二版3-unit5-电子教案.ppt

    home,Objectives,In this unit, you will, listen to a passage about the possibility of cloning a dog; read an article about animal cloning; enlarge your vocabulary related to genetic engineering; get some tips about the use of the passive voice; read another article about genetically modified food; read and write an email.,Objectives,main,Listening and Speaking,Text A,Grammar Tips,Text B,Comprehensive rcises,Practical Reading and Writing,Warm-up,1. Animal cloning and Dolly Animal cloning refers to artificial process of making an exact copy of an animal. Dolly the sheep was the first mammal 哺乳动物 ever cloned. A team of Scottish scientists took a cell from a female sheep, then took out the nucleus 细胞核 from the cell and put it into a sheep egg cell 卵细胞 with the egg cell’s own nucleus removed. Stimulated by electricity, the cell began dividing in to more cells. The scientists then,Warm-up-BG1,Discussion,Background Ination,,,Warm-up,placed the cells into the womb of another female sheep, where it continued to develop into a lamb. Five months later, that sheep gave birth to Dolly. Dolly is genetically identical to the female.,Warm-up- BG2,Background Ination,,,Discussion,Warm-up,Warm-up- BG3,Warm-up,Background Ination,,,Discussion,2. Problems in animal cloning 1 Few cloned embryos 胚胎 survive through birth. 2 Early studies provide questionable results about the health of animals cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer. 3 Genetic diversity can make a population more resistant to disease and environmental changes. However, large populations of cloned plants or animals may lack genetic diversity.,Warm-up- BG4,Warm-up,Background Ination,,,Discussion,Warm-up–BG5,Warm-up,Background Ination,,,Discussion,3. Controversies over genetically modified GM food Genetically modified plants present controversial issues. 1 Environmentalists fear that those plants may interbreed with weeds, producing weeds with unwanted characteristics, such as resistance to herbicides. 2 Some critics warn that the use of genetically modified food crops could result in unforeseen problems.,Warm-up- BG6,Background Ination,,,Discussion,Warm-up,3 Many European and developing nations have voiced concern about the health and environmental risks associated with imported genetically modified food crops from the United States and other countries.,Question Would you like to have a clone of yourself Why or why not,Hints,Warm-up- Discussion1,Discussion,Background Ination,,,Warm-up,The clone could help me do my homework or whatever difficult task I didn’t want to do so that I could enjoy myself all the time.,,The clone might make me do the homework or whatever difficult task the clone didn’t want to do so that he or she could enjoy life.,,Warm-up- Discussion2,Discussion,Background Ination,,,Warm-up,It would be good to have somebody who would support me in every way because he or she thinks just like myself.,,I wouldn’t have any secrets because the clone would know everything about me.,,It would be fun to see my friends get confused about me and my clone.,,It would be very dangerous because nobody could tell me from my clone.,,Warm-up- Discussion2,Discussion,Background Ination,,,Warm-up,If I did something wrong, I could use the clone as a scapegoat.,,The clone could use me as a scapegoat for his or her wrongdoings.,,,You will hear a recorded passage. After that you will hear five questions. Both the passage and the questions will be read twice. When you hear a question, you should complete the answer to it with a word or a short phrase in no more than three words. The questions and incomplete answers are printed in the textbook for your reference.,1. Who is Spark Spark is a .,Listening1,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,I. Listening,Script,dog,___,2. What has happened to Spark He has just . 3. If you want to have Spark back, what can probably help you A called cloning can probably help. 4. For many years, what have scientists been cloning Scientists have been cloning all kinds of for years.,Listening2,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,died,____,scientific process,______________,animals,______,Listening3,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,5. What are some of the common problems for cloned animals Cloned animals tend to have serious and shorter life.,health problems,_____________,Speaking,Listening and Speaking,To clone means to make an exact copy of a living thing. What do you think of human cloning Would you like to have a clone of yourself What are some of the possible benefits and potential problems of human cloning Discuss these questions with your partner. You may debate with your partner, with one of you focusing on the possible benefits, and the other on the potential problems. Volunteer to present your arguments to the whole class if your teacher asks for your opinions.,II. Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,Listening Script1,,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,He had been part of your family for as long as you can remember. He understood you better than anyone else. And now, sadly, your beloved dog Spark has died. Your mom has offered to buy you a new dog, a dog just like Spark. But you don’t want a new dog. You want Spark. What to do Thanks to a scientific process called cloning, you can probably have Spark back again if you really want.,Listening Script2,,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,Scientists have been cloning all kinds of animals for years. Now some companies offer petcloning services. They say cloning is a way to honor a beloved animal. But you should realize that cloning has a dark side. For every successful clone, there are dozens of failures. Cloned animals tend to have serious health problems and shorter life.,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions1,Text Study,clone n. vt. vi.,,,Text A,an exact copy of a plant or animal 克隆,无性繁殖 create an exact copy of a plant or animal 克隆,复制,put sb. or sth. at risk 使遭到危险,endanger vt.,template n.,pattern that is used for making many copies 模板,species n.,a group of plants or animals which share similar characteristics 物种,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions2,Text Study,habitat n.,,,Text A,the natural environment of an animal or plant 栖息地,hybridization n.,the process of producing a plant or animal from two different types 杂交,domestic adj.,of animal raised by people 家养的; relating to the home and family relationships 家庭的,家用的;inside one country and not international 国内的,result in,导致,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions3,Text Study,,,Text A,remain v.,continue to exist, or continue to be in the same state 持续,保持,funding n.,money given by a government or organization for an event or activity 经费,资金支持,backing n.,support, especially money, for a person or plan 支持,extinct adj.,no longer existing 灭绝,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions4,Text Study,,,Text A,cross v.,mix two breeds of animal or plant to produce a new breed 杂交,egg n.,卵子;蛋,genetic adj.,relating to genes 基因的,遗传的,purebred adj. n.,纯种的;纯种动物,cell n.,the smallest living part of an animal or a plant 细胞,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions5,Text Study,,,Text A,supply v. n.,provide 提供,供应 the act of supply; things supplied 供应;供应品,tissue n.,the material that animals and plants are made of 生物组织,spay v.,阉割雌兽,recover v.,get sth. back; to become healthy or happy again after an illness, injury, or period of sadness 重新获得,回收;康复,恢复,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions6,Text Study,,,Text A,convenient adj.,easy to get to or use; causing the least difficulty 方便的,便利的,ecosystem n.,all the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment 生态系统,discard v.,throw away 丢弃, 抛弃,move on,进一步发展,immature adj.,not completely developed; not behaving in a way like an adult 不成熟的,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions7,Text Study,,,Text A,suitable for,适合于,artificial adj.,not natural, but made by people 人工的,非自然的,embryo n.,胚胎,transfer v.,move sb. or sth. from one place to another; change to a different job, school, place of work, means of transportation, etc. 转移;转换工作、学校、单位、交通工具等,nutritional adj.,relating to nutrition 营养的,与营养有关的,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions8,Text Study,,,Text A,Proper Names,Dolly,多莉,世界上第一头克隆羊。,Genecom Ltd.,基因公司,一家英国咨询公司,支持与动物保护有关的项目。,the Royal Zoological Society,皇家动物学会。,the Cairngorms,凯恩戈姆山,位于苏格兰高地,该山区是英国的国家公园。,1 Dr. Bill Ritchie, a member of the team that cloned Dolly the sheep more than fifteen years ago, is turning his attention to helping save one of Scotland’s most endangered species, the Scottish Wildcat, which is also known as the “Scottish Tiger.” 2 Dr. Ritchie is working on a new cloning technique. It is hoped that this technique will become a template for other plans aimed at cloning endangered animals.,Text A-1,Dolly Scientist Plans to Clone the Scottish Wildcat,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,Text A,,,,,,,,Text A-2,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,3 The Scottish Wildcat is now seriously endangered because of the loss of habitat and hybridization with the domestic cat. These problems have resulted in an estimate of only 400 animals remaining in existence. 4 The project has some funding from Genecom Ltd., but Dr. Ritchie is looking for further financial backing to help stop the animal becoming extinct.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Text A-3,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,5 Hybridization, or crossing with domestic animals, may save the wildcat, as its ability to hybridize also allows the possibility of using domestic cat eggs for cloning. “This crossing indicates that there is a good chance of cloning being successful cross species, as only animals which are very close genetically have been successfully cloned,” says Dr. Ritchie.,,,,,,,,Text A-4,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,6 “Several cat species have been cloned using the domestic cat. It is very difficult to find pure wildcats because of their crossing with domestic animals, but modern scientific techniques are able to select animals which are purebred. Cells collected from these animals by taking a small piece of skin would be grown to supply cells for the cloning process.” Dr. Ritchie says. Eggs from domestic cats, which would be available from tissue recovered during spaying of the animal, could be used as the starting material for the cloning process.,,,,,,,,,,,,,Text A-5,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,7 A project from the Royal Zoological Society, which is being carried out in the Cairngorms to prevent hybridization with the domestic cat, could also be helpful. “Domestic cats are being spayed free of charge in the Cairngorms to try to protect the wildcats, but this may be a convenient source of eggs.”,,,,,,Text A-6,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,8 Dr. Ritchie adds “We spend lots of time traveling to Asia to see endangered species there, but seldom think of the loss of our own wildcat, which is even more endangered than many of the animals we travel half way round the world to see. The Scottish Wildcat is probably more difficult to see than many other big cats. It must be preserved if we are to have a healthy ecosystem.”,,9 The technique used for cloning the animal would be similar to that used to clone Dolly, but it has moved on by using eggs which can be recovered from material discarded during spaying. The immature eggs recovered from the tissue would mature in the right environment. This development from an immature state to an egg suitable for cloning would be carried out in an artificial environment. After about twenty-four hours, the egg would be suitable for trying to produce an embryo which would be transferred to a female cat.,Text A-7,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Text A-8,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,10 Many animals in zoos fail to breed because the social and nutritional condition of the animal is not met and because the animals do not get the rcise needed to keep them in breeding condition. “Animals which do not breed in the early years will often not breed in later life, but these animals would be able to supply cells for the cloning process,” says Dr. Ritchie. “Dolly was a great achievement leading to many breakthroughs, and this is just another use for the technology which was proved just a few years ago.”,,,,,,,,,Text A- Comprehension1,A. Complete the following sentences orally according to the text, and then work with your partner and take turns asking and answering the questions orally.,1. Who is Dr. Bill Ritchie Dr. Bill Ritchie is a member of . 2. What does Dr. Ritchie plan to do Dr. Ritchie plans to .,Comprehension,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,Text A,Words and Expressions,clone the Scottish Wildcat,_____________________,Text A- Comprehension2,3. How many Scottish Wildcats are left in the world today It is estimated that . 4. How could an immature egg from tissue recovered during spaying of domestic cats develop into a mature egg suitable for cloning The development would be carried out .,Text A,Comprehension,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,Words and Expressions,5. Why do many animals in zoos fail to breed Many animals in zoos fail to breed because and because .,Text A- Comprehension3,Text A,Comprehension,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,Words and Expressions,Text A- Comprehension4,B. Choose the best answer for each of the following statements or questions according to the text.,1. Dr. Bill Ritchie plans to clone the Scottish Wildcat because ________. A. he is a member of the team that cloned Dolly B. the animal is endangered C. the animal remains in existence D. the animal is extinct,Text A,Comprehension,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,Words and Expressions,Text A- Comprehension5,

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