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丁晓钟14年超精讲.doc

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丁晓钟14年超精讲.doc
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丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 13 - Section II : Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 {一} ①In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. ②Only if the jobless arrive at the job centre with a CV, register for the online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit — and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. ③What could be more reasonable? ①为了“让生活变得更美好”以及减少“依赖” ,英国财政大臣乔治·奥斯本引入了“求职预付金”计划。②只有当失业者带着简历到就业中心,注册在线求职并开始找工作,才有资格获得补助金——然后他们应该每周而非每两周报告一次。③有什么比这更合理呢? 【语篇分析】本段介绍了文章的背景。①中的带引号的内容显然是 George Osborne 的观点。②具体解释①中的“upfront work search” scheme。③是关于①②的合理性如何的疑问。这一问句的意思就有两种可能:一、此事非常合理——没有事比这更合理;二、此事不合理——George Osborne 还能想到什么更合理呢?如果该句放在文章的结尾,则肯定是第一种可能。但它只是在第一段末尾,下面还有很多内容,所以尚不能下结论。 【难句剖析】①In order to . “dependency”为目的状语从句,Chancellor of the Exchequer作 George Osborne 的同位语。②是一个倒装结构,当 only 表示“仅仅、只有”且放在句首,引导状语从句或者是作状语的副词、介词短语等时,主句应倒装。 [外刊例句] Only in this way will you be able to anticipate what's coming next and respond quickly and appropriately. 这有通过这种方式,你才能预期接着会发生什么并快速而恰当地回应。 【核心单词】upfront adj. 预付的 | scheme n. 方案,计划 | CV ( = curriculum vitae) n. 简历 | fortnightly adv. 两周一次地 【必背搭配】be eligible for 有资格获得…的 {二} ①More apparent reasonableness followed. ②There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker's allowance. ③“Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed, “We’re doing these things because we know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” ④Help? ⑤Really? ⑥On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidises laziness. ⑦What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness” — protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits. ①更加明显的合理性如下。②现在领取求职者补贴要等待七天。③“这前几天应该用来找工作,而不是办理失业登记(以获得救济金) 。 ”他说, “我们这样做是因为我们知道,这样会帮助人们摆脱补助并让依赖补助的人尽快就业。 ”④帮助?⑤真的吗?⑥乍一听,这是位关心社会的大臣,他努力改善人们的生活,包括对一个明显放纵的体系的“改革” ,这个体系不要求新失业者付出多少努力去找工作,为其懒惰埋单。⑦我们将会知道,激励他的是他对“基本的公正”的热诚——保护纳税人,控制花费以及确保只有最值得帮助的申请者才能得到补助金。 【语篇分析】①承上启下,是对上段最后一句提问的回答,reasonableness 与上文最后的reasonable 对应。②③是在第一段的基础上继续介绍“upfront work search” scheme 的细节和 George Osborne 自己对此的说法。根据“Help? ”、 “Really? ”和“On first hearing”等词语可以明显地看出,④④④④出现语意转折,作者并不认丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 14 - 同 George Osborne 的观点和“upfront work search” scheme。所以,第一段末尾③What could be more reasonable?以及本段的 ①①①只是在引述 George Osborne 的观点,而作者本身的观点与此相反。对比①④可知,①是引述 George Osborne 自己所言引入“upfront work search” scheme 目的,而⑦是作者判断出 George Osborne 的动机。 【难句剖析】③he 指代上段的 George Osborne,on benefits 作后置定语修饰 those。⑥动名词结构 trying to .作后置定语(同位语)修饰 the socially concerned chancellor;“A, complete with B”的意思是“A,包括 B”,此处 A 为 trying . better, B 为 reforms . system;定语从句 that demands . and subsides laziness 修饰 an obviously indulgent system。⑦What motivated him 为主语从句,we were to understand 为插入语,破折号后的 protecting ., controlling . and ensuring .作 fundamental fairness 的同位语,从句 that only . benefits 作 ensure 的宾语。 【考点提炼】(1) Really?(真的吗?)常表示前述内容并不属实,并在后面提出反驳意见。 [外刊例句] This poster says opening up the western parts of Canada and Australia has turned them into “global giants“. Really? Canada's share of the global GDP is 1.8% and Australia's is 1.2%. (economist.com) 这一海报说开放加拿大和澳大利亚的西部使它们转变为“全球强国” 。真的吗?加拿大的 GDP 只占全球 1.8% 而澳大利亚只占 1.2%。 (2) On first hearing(乍一听) , at first blush(乍一想), at first glance/sight(乍一看)等,常用来表示最初的反应并非真实。at first 和 initially 常用来表示“一开始”情况如何,然后又出现了转折。 [外刊例句] At first glance, Indians enjoy the freedom to speak and criticize no less than Americans, Europeans or others lucky enough to live in democracies. Look closer and the picture is rather different. The country is enthralled at the moment by a series of corruption scandals, mostly involving members of the ruling Congress party.(economist.com) 乍一看,印度人享有的言论和批评的自由不比美国人、欧洲人以及其它足够有幸生活在民主国家的人少。更深入地观察会发现情况大相径庭。该国现在遭遇了一系列贪腐丑闻,主要涉及执政的的国大党成员。 【核心单词】reasonableness n. 合理性 | allowance n. 补贴,津贴 | indulgent adj. 放纵的,宽容的 | subsidise v. 资助 | motivate v. 激励 | zeal n. 热情,热诚 | deserving adj. 值得的,应得到的 | fairness n. 公平,公正 | claimant n. 申请者 【必背搭配】(be) complete with 包括,连同 | socially concerned 关心社会的 | newly unemployed 新失业的 【理解难点】sign on [英国英语] 办理失业登记(以获得失业救济金) BrE: to state officially that you are unemployed by signing a form, so that you can get money from the government {三} ①Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the job centre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. ②It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. ③You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. ④Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. ⑤Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job. ①失业是痛苦的:你不会内心歌唱并跳跃着到就业中心去,为从这个慷慨国度得到加倍收入的前景而欣喜。②在经济上它令人生畏,在心理上感到难堪,并且你还知道那种扶持的微薄和非常难以得到。③现在没人需要你;你现在被排除在工作环境之外,那里会给予你人生的目标和体制。④更糟糕的是,失去了用以养家糊口和支付账单的至关重要的收入。⑤问任何新失业者他们想要什么,答案永远是:一份工作。 【语篇分析】①②③④为一个意群,主题句是 Losing a job is hurting,其余内容都是在对这个主题句进行解释和展开,为次要信息。结尾句⑤说明了失业者本人的真实想法:希望有一份工作。 丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 15 - 【难句剖析】①过去分词短语 delighted at .作状语。③定语从句 that offers . life 修饰 work environment。⑤从句 what they want 作动词 ask 的直接宾语,anyone newly unemployed 为其间接宾语,其中newly unemployed 作后置定语修饰 anyone。 【核心单词】skip v. 跳 | double v. 加倍,成为两倍 | generous adj. 慷慨的,大方的 | minimal adj. 微薄的,极小的 | feed v. 抚养,供养,供给 【必背搭配】psychologically embarrassing 使人心理上感到难堪的 | extraordinarily hard 非常困难 | be excluded from 被排除在…之外 | pay the bill 支付账单 {四} ①But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency — permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. ②It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. ③The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. ④Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no fundamental right to benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions. ⑤Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance”, conditional on actively seeking a job: no entitlement and no insurance, at ₤71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU. ①但是在奥斯本之国,你的第一反应就是坠入依赖——永远的依赖,如果你能得到的话——它由一个非常乐意放任你弄虚作假的国家所支持。②好像这二十年一直严厉的求职和补助金管理系统的改革从未发生过。③英国福利的原则不再是如果发生灾难,你能为自己投保失业险和得到无条件赔付。④甚至正是“求职者补贴”这个词语,在将失业者重新定义为“求职者” ,他人通过缴纳国民保险金可享有补助,而求职者则没有这个基本权利。⑤作为替代,申请者得到的是一周 71.70 英镑的限时“补贴” ,条件是积极地找工作:没有津贴也没有保险,在欧盟这也是最小气之一了。 【语篇分析】①But 标志着前面的内容与本句的内容在语意上存在明显的转折。由上段所述失业者因为失业的痛苦而非常想找工作,可以推断出①中 Osborne 所言与此相反。而①的意思是,Osborne 认为如果不对失业补助等福利加以严格控制,就会让很多人陷入对福利制度的依赖而不思进取、不劳而获。这里与第一段中的 in order to reduce dependency 联系起来,可进一步说明Osborne 的观点。 ②③④⑤是一个意群,作者在此论证 Osborne 所言不实。③disaster 指代Osborne’s scheme,可见作者认为若施行 Osborne’s scheme 会是一场灾难。 【难句剖析】①过去分词短语 supported . falsehood 作 dependency 的后置定语。②句使用了虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反。因此,此句表达的的真正意思是 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system happened,即这二十年间一直在进行严厉的有关改革。③that 引导同位语从句 that you . happens 修饰 The principle of British welfare。正常语序应是 The principle of British welfare that … is no longer,因同位语从句较长,为使句子不至于头重脚轻而将其后置。④定语从句 who had . contributions 修饰 jobseeker,其中又有一个修饰 benefit 的定语从句 he or she . contributions。 【核心单词】indulge v. 纵容,放纵 | falsehood n. 谬误,虚假,谎言 | very adj. (与 the, this或 my, your 等连用)正是那个,恰好是 | claimant n. 申请者 | entitlement n. 津贴 【必背搭配】insure A against B 为 A 投保 B 险,保障 A 防范 B 带来的危险 | fundamental right 基本权利 | conditional on 以…为条件 | seek a job 找工作,求职 ◎洞悉题干: 21. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to(George Osborne 计划的目的是什么) 22. The phase “to sigh on”(Line 2, Para. 2) most probably means(短语“sign on”最可能表达什么意思) 丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 16 - 23. What prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme?(是什么促使这个大臣推行他的计划?) 24. According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel(根据第三段,失业状态使人感觉到什么) 25. To which of the following would the author most probably agree?(作者最可能同意下列哪一项?) 通过洞悉题干,可推测本文的主题与一个 scheme 有关,而且涉及到就业问题。 ◎定位解答: 21. George Osborne’s scheme was intended to 【精确定位】由题干 George Osborne’s scheme 定位到第一段 ①In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. ②Only if the jobless arrive at the job centre with a CV, register for the online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit — and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. 【选项解码】[A] provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.(为失业者得到补助金提供更加容易的途径) 由②可见 George Osborne’s scheme 使获取补助金更加困难,与本选项的内容相反。 [B] encourage jobseeker’ s active engagement in job seeking.(鼓励求职者积极参与找工作) 从②可知,George Osborne’s scheme 一系列措施就是让失业者积极找工作才能获取补助金,即其目的为鼓励失业者丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 29 - 【核心单词】sadly adv. 悲哀地,难过地,令人痛心地 | vehicle n. 交通工具,传播媒介,(传达或表达思想的)工具,手段 | publicize v. 宣扬,宣传,公布 | propaganda n. 宣传 【必背搭配】be deprived of 被剥夺了,丧失 {五} Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas — such as free markets and self-reliance — as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and something legitimate, intellectual investigation. 如今,教授们通常将进步的历史观和公共政策视为正统的学习科目,而将保守的或古典自由主义的观点——例如:自由市场和自力更生——描述为逾越了常规、合理事物和理性调研的界限。 【语篇分析】本段介绍了美国教育的一些现状。 【难句剖析】句子主干为 professors routinely treat … as …;并列连词 while 引导现在分词短语 while portraying … as …作伴随状语(表示分词短语的动作伴随谓语动词的动作同时发生,以及两者之间的对比关系) ,在意义上它相当于与前面句子并列的单句 while professors portray … as …。[类似于“treat/portray sb/sth as + 形容词/ 名词等”的结构还有“regard/see sb/sth as …”和“describe sb sth as …”等。——笔者注] professors 将 the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy 视为 the proper subject of study,表明对它们持肯定态度。falling outside of the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation 表示逾越了常规、合理事物和理性调查的界限,即表示不常规、合理和理性,可见 professors对 conservative or classical liberal ideas — such as free markets and self-reliance 持否定态度。以上的剖析可参阅下面的[外刊例句 ]: (1) An interesting example of this is the growing number of organizations that outsource implementation and maintenance of their systems while maintaining control of the overall enterprise architecture. (ibm.com) 关于这点有一个有趣的例子,就是越来越多的机构外包它们的系统的运行和维护,而坚持自己对整个企业架构的控制。 (2) Oftentimes, our leaders behave as if they were outside of the boundaries of the law. (im2moro.org) 我们的领导人时常表现得像是逾越了法律的界限。 【核心单词】progressive adj. 进步的,革新的,当代的 | portray v. 描述,描绘 【必背搭配】treat as 将…视为 | public policy 公共政策 | free market 自由市场 | intellectual investigation 理智的(非感情的) 、理性的调查研究 {六} ①The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. ②Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate. ①美国艺术与科学院显示了对通才教育的巨大热情。②然而其报告由于掩盖了国会要求它阐明的挑战的深度和广度,很可能会使改革倒退。 【语篇分析】本段是对上面第四、五段的总结。 【难句剖析】②by obscuring .作方式状语,that 引导定语从句修饰 the depth and breadth of the challenge。 【核心单词】obscure v. 掩盖 | breadth n. 宽度 | illuminate v. 阐明 【必背搭配】display great enthusiasm 显示巨大的热情 | set back 推迟,使…受挫,把…往回拨 ◎洞悉题干: 36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?(根据第一段,作者对 AAAS 的报告持什么态度?) 丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 30 - 37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to(国会中有影响力的人要求 AAAS 报告该如何去做) 38. According to paragraph 3, the report suggests(根据第三段,该报告建议什么) 39. The author implies in paragraph 5 that professors are(作者在第五段暗示了教授们是什么状况) 40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?(下列哪一项是本文最佳标题?) 洞悉提干,可以推测文章的主题跟 AAAS’s report 相关。 ◎定位解答: 36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report? 【精确定位】由题目可直接定位至第一段。前面在[语篇分析] 中业已指出该段是典型的“欲抑先扬”的发展模式。由标志词 Regrettably 和 however 可以发现②相对于①出现了明显的语意转折,所以进一步精确定位到句②。 【选项解码】[A] Critical.(批评的)从语气上初步判断 regrettably 标志作者所持态度是负面的,再从语意上may cause more harm than good 精准判断作者对 AAAS’s report 持批评的态度,所以答案选[A]。 [B] Appreciative.(感激的)作者既已指出 may cause more harm than good,显然不会持感激的态度。 [C] Contemptuous.(轻蔑的)作者对 AAAS’s report 虽然持批评态度,也不可能偏激到 contemptuous 的程度。因为作者是在针对一篇报告发表议论,而不是发表对论敌的“战斗檄文” 。故排除本选项。 [D] Tolerant.(容忍的)作者已指出报告 may cause more harm than good,显然不是容忍的态度。 37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to 【精确定位】一般而言,题目大都按照所涉及内容在文章中的顺序来排列。第 36 题明确指示定位第一段,第38 题明确指示定位第三段,所以可猜测第 37 题会定位第二段。实际上,第二段阐述的也正是 Congress 与 AAAS 的互动情况,与本题相关。 【选项解码】[A] retain people’s interest in liberal education. (维持人们对通才教育的兴趣) 文中无相关信息。 [B] define the government’s role in education. (明确政府在教育中的作用 ) 干扰信息来自第二段①… asking that it identify actions that could be taken by “federal, state and local governments, …,这部分是说要求 AAAS 确定可由“联邦、州和地方政府…”采取的措施,并没有要求其明确政府在教育中的作用。故排除[B]。 [C] keep a leading position in liberal education. (保持在通才教育方面的领先地位) 题干中的 Influential figures in the Congress 是对句①中的 leading congressional Democrats and Republicans 的替换;选项[C] keep a leading position in liberal education. 是对句①的目的状语为 to maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education 的替换。因此答案选[C] 。 [D] safeguard individuals’ rights to education. (保障个人受教育的权利) 文中无相关信息。 38. According to paragraph 3, the report suggests 【精确定位】由题干可直接定位到第三段。 【选项解码】[A] an exclusive study of American history. (只学习美国历史) 干扰信息来自②… stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government …,但是原文只是说报告“强调学习历史和政治,特别是美国历史和美国政治” ,而不是“只学习美国历史” 。所以本选项属于混淆语意,予以排除。 [B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects. (更加重视理论科目)文中没有涉及 theoretical subjects 的内容,本选项属于无中生有,予以排除。 [C] the application of emerging technologies. (应用新兴技术) 根据选项进一步定位到②,可以发现选项中 the application of emerging technologies 是对该句 the use of new digital technologies 的替换。因此,[C]为答案。注意:修炼好基本功,熟练掌握基础词汇的涵义,将对你快速锁定正确选项有非常大的帮助。[注释] application n. 应用,运用 emerging adj. 新兴的 丁晓钟:考研英语历年真题超精解 · 2014 年 - 31 - [D] funding for the study of foreign languages. (资助外语学习) 干扰信息来自④The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, …,句中 advocate 的词义是“提倡,主张,拥护”,并非“资助” (fund) 。所以本选项属于混淆语意,予以排除。 39. The author implies in paragraph 5 that professors are 【精确定位】第五段只有一个句子,考生可参照[难句剖析] 解答本题。 【选项解码】[A] supportive of free markets.(支持自由市场) 从[难句剖析] 可知,professors对 free markets 持否定态度,本选项与此相反。 [B] cautious about intellectual investigation. (谨慎对待理性调研) 文中提及“理性调研”是在后半句:portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas … as falling outside the boundaries of … intellectual investigation,但原文只是说 professors“将保守的或经典自由派的观点…描述为逾越了…理性调研的界限” ,并没有说明他们对待理性调研是否谨慎。 [C] conservative about public
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