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含有否定意义的词汇.doc

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含有否定意义的词汇.doc
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含有否定意义的词汇1. 否定词:not,no,un-, dis-,-less名词或短语 absence(缺乏,没有) ,anxiety(不安) ,deficiency(不足,缺乏) ,departure(背离,违背) ,exclusion(排除,出去) ,failure(失败) ,ignorance(无知) ,neglect(忽视,无视) ,refusal(拒绝)等Anybody’s guess(谁都说不上) ,the exclusion of(不顾)2. 否定意义的动词:lack,fail, stop,prevent ,ignore,refuse ,avoid ,miss,cease ,Bar(排斥,不准),overlook (忽略) ,spare (不用)Give up(放弃) ,keep off(不接近) ,know better than (不至于) ,let alone(更不用说)名词. 表示含蓄否定的名词有: absence ( 缺乏) , freedom ( 没有) , failure (未能) ,inability (无力 ) , lack (缺少) 等。例:Ignorance of the law is no excuse,不懂法律不能作为免罪的口实。To many people, health means the freedom from any obvious symptoms of disease.对许多人来说, 健康意味着没有任何明显的病症。Health cannot be defined as merely the absence of disease.健康不能简单地定义为没有疾病。In many case a simple cause may be responsible for failure of the ulcer to heal.在很多病例中, 某个简单的原因就可能使溃疡不能愈合。动词. 表示含蓄否定的动词有: avoid (避免) , deny (否认) , cancel (取消) , fail ( 不能) , ignore (忽视) , miss (错过 ) , refuse (拒绝) , object (反对) , spoil (惯坏) , exclude(排除) , overlook (忽略) 等。例:But the wound refused to heal.但是伤口没有愈合。At times, however, this epiglottis fails to work properly, and the food enters the larynx and causes choking.有时会厌不能正常活动, 因此食物进入喉部而噎住。If drug supply and distribution system fail, a black market emerges.如果药品供应和配给体制不健全, 黑市就出现了。Bypass operation seems indicated when obstructive symptoms fail to respond to medical treatment.内科治疗肠梗阻无效时, 就要考虑行分流术。形容词. 表示含蓄否定的形容词有: rare (稀少) , absent (没有) , few (很少) , little(很少) 等。例 :Today it is rare to find a case of this sort at all.今天, 我们不可能再发生这种疾病。Dr. Smith is absent from the emergency room.史密斯大夫不在急诊室。副词. 示含蓄否定的副词有: hardly (几乎不) , scarcely (稀少) , little (很少) , rarely(罕见) , poorly (很差) , 等。Scarcely does fever occur without other discomfort.发热而无其它不适是不常有的事。The disease is usually of short duration and is rarely serious.通常此病病程短而且几乎不严重。Poorly localized epigastric pain heralds the onset of appendicitis in a retrocecal or retroilealappendix.不固定的上腹部疼痛预示盲肠后位或回肠后位阑尾炎的开始。连词. 表示含蓄否定的连词有: unless (除非) , but that (要不是) , lest (以免) , instead of(代替) , but for (若非) , rather than (宁愿) 等。例:In p revention of recurrent rheumatic fever sulfadiazine should be used instead of penicillin if thepatient is sensitive to the latter.在预防风湿热复发时, 如病人对青霉素过敏, 就采用磺胺嘧啶而不用青霉素。We consider this case to be an example of emphysema and chronic bronchitis rather thanemphysema and bronchiectasis.我们把这个病例看作肺气肿合并慢性支气管炎, 而不是肺气肿合并支气管扩张的例子。词组. 表示含蓄否定的词组有: keep from (防止) , protect from (防护) , refrain from (克制) , break down ( 出毛病) , keep off (避开) , far from ( 远非) , fall short of (缺乏) ,independent of (不依赖) , in the absence of ( 缺少) 等。例 :Some microorganism live and grow only in the absence of oxygen.某些微生物只能在无氧的环境中生长发育。When HCL and pep sin appear in the absence of food to dilute and neutralize secretions, ulcerationof the stomach wallmay result.当胃分泌出盐酸和胃蛋白酶而无食物中和时, 可能致使胃壁形成溃疡。The cost of p reventive medicine keep s it from being widely app lied.预防医学费用昂贵, 使其无法推广。The patient, though not entirely free from symptoms, is regarded as a chronic carrier.虽然病人并非完全没有症状, 他仍然算是一个慢性带菌者。
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