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定语从句 (2)疑难问题与核心考点(A).ppt

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定语从句 (2)疑难问题与核心考点(A).ppt
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2019/10/2,1,2019/10/2,2,定语从句 (以下简称:定从),高考重点和难点---------,2019/10/2,3,第二节 疑难问题与核心考点 (A),2019/10/2,4,我们在第一节课中,学过定语从句的概述,理解了定语从句的一些基本概念,关系词的基本用法,以及句子组合法、结构分析法等句型方法。我们在学习定语从句过程中,总是存在这样或那样的摸棱两可的甚至是错误的认识,今天我们就解决这个问题。从这个课题的命名,大家就可以看出,要解答疑难问题了,要强化核心考点了。我们可能不只一次的讲某个问题,但角度有所不同。,2019/10/2,5,一、关系词必须同时满足的三个约束条件 二、关系词与先行词的关系:不同意群下的含义相关 三、意群不同:关系词与先行词前都可带各自的介词 四、强调先行词的一种结构:“先行词的同位语+定语从句” 五、 关于定语从句中“介词+关系词” 的综述(一) 如何确定 “介词+关系词”中的介词( 二 ) whose + n. 的等价结构: of which / of whom + the + n. (三) “关系副词” 与 “介词+which” 的关系(不可草率用等号)(四) “数量词语 +of which / of whom”表示整体与部分关系(五)“介词+which/whom + 带to不定式”作后置定语(六) “介词+ which + 表示先行词之属种概念的名词”( 七 ) “介词+whose + n. ”( 八 ) “from where”: 一个更确切的方位( 九) “since when 从那时起” ------引导非限制性定从,只与完成时态搭配(十)“与先行词或定从谓语构成习惯搭配的介词+ which / whom” 六、 避免重复使用关系词的问题 七、“广义地点”:任何有形或无形的方位空间 八、as 引导定从(含与which 定从的比较),内容提要,2019/10/2,6,一、关系词必须同时满足的三个约束条件,关系词必须同时满足三个约束条件即:,2019/10/2,7,[例 1 ] (不定项选择) 关系词必须同时满足三个约束条件 (1)I don’t like the very way _________ he talks with her. (2) I don’t like the very way ________ he talks aboutwith her.A. in which B. that C. 不填 D. which,A /B /C,B /C,解释:(1)way作先行词且定从缺乏方式状语,使用that / in which , 或省略关系词(2)先行词way指物,定从缺宾语,which 定从的先行词前不用the very; that 作定从宾语时可以省略,2019/10/2,8,(3)He is so even a man _______ nobody wants to getalong with_____A. that ; him B. that ; / C. as ; / D. as; him (4) The store _____ he bought in 2000, ____ he sellsshirts and pants, will be by force pulled down by the government. A. where; and which B. which ; and that C. which ; where D. what ; whenE. that ; and where F. what ; and where,A / C,E,2019/10/2,9,二、关系词与先行词的关系:不同意群下的含义相关,关系词与先行词之间只是 “含义相关”,而非“替代关系”。 这是因为关系词属于定从,而先行词属于另一个句子,也就是说,关系词与先行词分别属于不同的意群, 即:它们属于不同的(子)系统,或不同的语言单位。,[例 2 ] He lost his pen which his aunt had bought for him.,( ),,,his pen 为主句的宾语,which为定从的宾语,2019/10/2,10,三、意群不同:关系词与先行词前都可带各自的介词,,刚才我们已经指出,关系词与先行词分别属于不同的意群,即属于不同的(子)系统,或不同的语言单位。既然如此,关系词与先行词之前都可带各自的介词。,[例 3 ]They lock it up in the stable in which theyonce lived.,,,in the stable 是一个相对完整的意群,它属于主句的地点状语,in which也是一个相对完整的意群,它却属于定从的地点状语,两个in 互不影响,2019/10/2,11,[例 4 ] 选择一个最佳选项 (1)Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree _____ they can be controlledon purpose.A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which (2) I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had runback in the direction______ she had come.A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which,B,D,2019/10/2,12,四、加强语气:“先行词的同位语+定语从句”,在正式文体中,出于修辞的需要,人们常常先重复先行词, 从而就形成先行词的一个同位语,然后再使用定语从句,由此形成“先行词的同位语+定语从句”若先行词是可数的,则可使用 one(s) 或the one (s)来作先行词的同位语;其中,one前是否使用the , one 是否加-s, 都取决于先行词:先行词特指就用the, 先行词是复数,one就加-s,,注: 1. one 相当于 “a + 单数”, 因此不存在 a one 2. 但是 存在the one 和 a(n) + adj. + one,2019/10/2,13,[例 4 ] (1) Now we hear that a new campaign has been launched in China , a campaign that urges greater efforts to develop agriculture.,→→ Now we hear that a new campaign has beenlaunched in China, one that urges greater efforts todevelop agriculture.,用 one 替代 a campaign,2019/10/2,14,(2) The people wore their summer clothes, the clothes in which they had gone to work .,用the ones 替代 the clothes,→→ The people wore their summer clothes, the ones in which they had gone to work .,2019/10/2,15,[例 5] 不定项选择: (1) A wise student is ____ student who is good at learning , especially ______ that is good at learning from mistakes and failures.A. a ; the one B. a; / one C. the ; one D. a ; a one (2) He is a strict and kind teacher, ___, I think , our classmates love and respect.A. one whom B. the one who C. the teacher who D. the teacher,B,A,2019/10/2,16,(3)That was the very day, _____________, I think, I will never forget in my life.A. the one B. one C. a day D. when E. which F. on which G. the day H. that(4) It is ___ world of wonders, ____ world where anything can happen. (04’ 福建; SB I Unit 12 ) A. a ; the B. a; a C. the ; a D. / ; /,A / E / G,B,2019/10/2,17,(5) Liu Xiang’s breaking the record in the Asian Games was an exciting moment, ________all of us will never forget. (07’ 东北)A. that B. one C. it D. whatE. which,B/ E,提示: 在第(5)题中,若去掉横线前的an exciting moment, 则可选择D项,2019/10/2,18,五、 关于定语从句中“介词+关系词” 的综述,(一) 如何确定 “介词+关系词”中的介词(二) 意群不同:关系词与先行词前都可带各自的介词( 三 ) whose + n. 的等价结构: of which / of whom + the + n. (四) “关系副词” 与 “介词+which” 的关系(不可草率用等号)(五) “数量词语 +of which / of whom”表示整体与部分关系(六)“介词+which/whom + 带to不定式”作后置定语(七) “介词+ which + 表示先行词之属种概念的名词”( 八 ) “介词+whose + n. ”( 九) “from where 从那里”: 一个更确切的方位( 十) “since when 从那时起” ---非限制性定从,只与完成时或完成进行时搭配,2019/10/2,19,(一)如何确定 “介词+关系词”中的介词,A. 介词的确定原则:所选择介词应当与先行词或者定从谓语构成习惯搭配;先行词之前的介词和“介词+which”中的介词互不影响B. 介词的位置原则:(1)不得拆分在定从中作状语的“介词+which”结构,(2) “介词+which”属于动词短语的一部分时,该介词又可位于动词短语的原始位置(3)不得拆分表示“…的”和“…中的” of which / of whom ( 4 ) 不可拆分的动词短语,其介词不得移至which/whom前(5)不得在that、who、why、as之前使用介词【注解】拆分后含义遭到破坏的动词短语不得拆分,如 look after,2019/10/2,20,(二)、意群不同:关系词与先行词前都可带各自的介词,,刚才我们已经指出,关系词与先行词分别属于不同的意群,即属于不同的(子)系统,或不同的语言单位。既然如此,关系词与先行词之前都可带各自的介词。,[例 3 ]They lock it up in the stable in which theyonce lived.,,,in the stable 是一个相对完整的意群,它属于主句的地点状语,in which也是一个相对完整的意群,它却属于定从的地点状语,两个in 互不影响,2019/10/2,21,(三)、定从中whose + n. 的等价结构,,帮助记忆: 等式右端必须使用 “the +n.”, of which / of whom 可放置在“the +n.” 之前或之后,2019/10/2,22,[例 6 ] (不定项选择) (1)She hesitated to buy those things, _________had been higher than expected. A. the price of which B. the price of whoseC. whose the price D. whose price E. of which the price (2) His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone __________family was poor. A. of whom B. whom C. of whose D. whose (3) Molecules make up matter, ________ can be changed by the increase and decrease for its temperature. A. of which B. the state of which C. whose stateD. whose situation E. of which the state,A / D /E,D,B / C /E,2019/10/2,23,[例 7 ] 将下列划线部分转化成带介词的结构: (1)This is the largest clock in the world, whose minute hand is 6 metres long.(2)This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world. (3) The dictionary, whose cover is red , is a birthday gift given by my father.(4) Nobody wants the house whose roof has fallen in.(5) Mike, with whose brother you work, happened to visit us yesterday.,the minute hand of which / of which the minute hand,the name of whom / of whom the name,the cover of which / of which the cover,the roof of whom / of whom the roof,the brother of whom,2019/10/2,24,(四) “关系副词” 与 “介词+which” 的关系:,,一定成立,2019/10/2,25,任何失去约束条件的结论或公式,都是错误的,我们刚才分析了关系副词与 “介词+which”的关系, 已经提醒大家不要草率使用等号, 但不是不可以使用等号,只要注意公式的约束条件,还是可以写成下列等式的:,有待解决的问题:“动词+名词+介词”结构中的介词与which搭配时,不可反向转化,2019/10/2,26,[例 7 ] 指出下列划线部分,可否转化为关系副词或 “介+which”: She opened her notebook , in which were recorded names and addresses of her friends. (2) She wanted to see the film in which she was interested. (3) She has no reason why she didn’t finish it.(4) Known was the reason for which she had bought the ticket. (5) Very interesting and instructive was the film for which she had bought a ticket.,,,,,,where,不可换where,be interested in, in 可句尾,for which,why,不可换 why; for 表示用途,a ticket for the film,2019/10/2,27,[例 8 ] 不定项选择Don’t leave the medicine ____ children can reach it. A. where B. in which C. for which D. within which (2) She explains the reason _____ she was dismissedA. why B. with which C. for which D. by which (3) The party ____ they are making a plan must be a success. (从第(2)小题的选项中选择) (4) The training ____ he spent much will be unforgettable.A. when B. on which C. for which D. in whichE. which,A,A / C,C,B,2019/10/2,28,(五) 整体与部分关系: “其中多少人或物…”,1.注意区别 : ①“数量词语 +of which / of whom :一个带连词的结构 ②“数量词语 +of them” : 一个不带连词的结构 2.注意表达习惯:①两者中较…的一个:“the 比较级(one) of the two…”②逗号不起任何连接作用;分号相当于一个并列连词,,,2019/10/2,29,[例 7 ](试着给出定从的另一种写法)He has two boys , the older (one) of whom is a doctor.(2) He bought me many apples , some of which had gone bad.,→→… , of whom the older (one) is a doctor.,→→…, of which some had gone bad.,2019/10/2,30,(3) She misses her friends , twenty of ____ have passed away. them B. which C. whom D. whose(4) I bought four books ; ____ is about the history of literature. A. two of which B. one of them C. one of which D. the better of which,C,→→ … , of whom twenty have passed away.,思考: A项为什么不正确?,B,思考: 其他选项为什么不正确?,2019/10/2,31,[例 8 ]请使用表示整体与部分关系的定从,翻译句子(1)中国有成百上千的岛屿,其中最大是台湾。(2) 我从图书馆借来三本书,其中有两本真值得读。(3) 船上的四个人,含一位医生,在海上遇到了暴风雨。,China has hundreds of islands, the largest of which / of which the largest is Taiwan.,I have borrowed three books from the library, two of which / of which two are well worth reading.,The four men on board , of which one / one of which was a doctor, met with a storm at sea.,2019/10/2,32,(4) 他给我寄来了月饼,有几个都已经变质了。(5) 我将邀请一些最要好的朋友,大部分也是我的同学。(6) 这房子有两个房间,最小的当厨房用。,He sent me by mail / mailed to me some moon cakes , a few of which / of which a few had gone bad.,I will invite some best friends, most of whom / of whom most are also my schoolmates.,The house has two rooms, the smaller (one) of which / of which the smaller (one)is used as a kitchen,2019/10/2,33,(六) 介词+which/whom + 带to不定式” 作后置定语,[例 9 ] 以下两个句子摘录自现行高中教材 (1)The next step would be to build a machine in which to apply that great discovery. (SB II , Unit 12 课后习题中的阅读文章 ),,注解: ①该种结构的作用相当于一个定语从句,其中的不定式的作用: 表示目的、用途、方式等, ②which/ whom前的介词又可以放在动词不定式之后,2019/10/2,34,(2) Tomorrow would be Christmas Day , and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present.(SB III , Unit 10 ),,→→…had only $1.87 to buy Jim a present with.,2019/10/2,35,[例 10 ] (1)The bank has purchased some property (地产) ________ to construct a new building.A. on which B. which C. that D. with which (2) We are training 30 strong men ____ to choose 12 as guards for the City Garden.A. among whom B. whom C. from whom D. whose (3) Frank’s dream was to have his own shop ________ to produce the workings of his own hands. A. that B. in which C. by which D. how (05’ 湖南,27) (4) At last there was something ____ to write home.A. with which B. for which C. about which D. by which,A,C,B,C,2019/10/2,36,(七) “介词+ which + 表示先行词属种概念的名词”,比如: (1) He is old , which fact is important. (2) We told him to see the doctor ,which advice he took. 当“which + 表示先行词的属种概念的名词”作介词宾语时,就构成“介词+ which + 表示先行词属种概念的名词”请看下列例题:,which可以充当定语,修饰表示先行词属种概念的名词,,2019/10/2,37,[例 10 ] (1) In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30p.m., ____ time many people have gone home.A. whose B. when C. on which D. by which,我们注意到: 先行词是具体时间,横线之后有一个表示先行词属种的 名词time,另外, 在定从中使用了现在完成时态。那么, 定从应理解为:“到那时为止/ 截止到那个时间,许多人都已经回家了”,D,2019/10/2,38,(2) In 1960 he came to Landon, ____ city he has lived ever since. A. which B. in which C. where D. at which,我们注意到:先行词是具体地点London,横线之后有一个表示先行词属种的 名词city ,那么,定从应理解为:“此后他就住在该城市了”,B,2019/10/2,39,(3) They raised two oxen, ___animals they farmed their land.A. by which B. with which C. on which D. what,我们注意到: 先行词是具体动物,横线之后有一个表示先行词属种的 名词animals ,那么,定从应理解为:“他们用这两头牲畜种田”,,(4) It rained all day and all night, ______ time the ship broke in pieces. A. for which B. at which C. when D. during which,我们注意到: 先行词是具体时间,横线之后有一个表示先行词属种的 名词time ,那么,定从应理解为:“在此期间,船体支离破碎了”,B,D,2019/10/2,40,( 八 ) “介词+whose + n. ”,whose引导定语从句,作定语从句的定语,从而形成 “whose + n. ”结构. “whose + n. ” 作定语从句的主、宾、表语,当该结构作介词的宾语时,就形成 “介词+whose + n. ” ; 这种结构来源于 (1) 固定词组“介词+one’s +n.”, 比如:in one’s honour in one’s spare timeto one’s +表示感情情绪的词语(“令某人…的”) during one’s holiday 等等(2) 松散动词短语中的介词+ one’s + n. 比如:work with one’s …. be worried about one’s …talk to / with one’s live with one’s… 等等,2019/10/2,41,[例题15] A. 这种结构来源于固定词组“介词+one’s +n.”B. 这种结构来源于 “松散动词短语中的“介词+ one’s + n.”,(1) Mike , in whose honour we will sponsor a concert , once wrote many articles to fight against the slavery. (2) I interviewed the workers, to whose satisfaction, their working condition had been improved.,(3) Will you also drop in on the humorous man , to whose brother you once turned for help ? (4) I dislike the song, with whose noise I have lived too long.,2019/10/2,42,** ( 九 )一个更确切的方位:“ from where 从那里” -----先行词为方位介词短语或方位副词,from 后可以接表示方位的介词短语或副词, 表示一个更加确切 的方位, 比如, from across the river 从过河的地方from behind the car 从车子的后边from here 从这里from abroad 来自国外 由此, 在将两个句子连接成含定语从句的复合句时,就会形成“from where”, 此结构中where代替的是一个表示方位的介词短语 或方位副词, 而它的先行词也是一个表示方位的介词短语 或方位副词。请看例题:,2019/10/2,43,[例题15] 将下列句子连接成含有定从的复合句: (1) They stood at the window . They could see what was happening in the street from there.(2) Surprised, the man turned to look at what had happened behind his car . A stone flied from behind the car.,→→They stood at the window from where they could seewhat was happening in the street.,→→Surprised, the man turned to look at what had happened behind his car , from where a stone flied.,2019/10/2,44,**( 十 ) “since when 从那时起”:定从只使用完成时或完成进行时--------when 相当于 which time We came back on Tuesday, since when we have been working in the repair shop. 我们星期二回来,从那时起就一直在修配间工作。,考虑此后配备相关练习题目,2019/10/2,45,六、避免重复关系词的问题,句子前边出现Who (m) / Which 时, 此后的定从中 作主语或宾语的关系词应当避免重复使用Who (m) / Which, 而用that来替代。 [例 10 ] (1)Who is the man that is standing at the school gate ?(2) I don’t like the boy who is always cheating in the exam and that is constantly telling lies in face of any scold.(3) Which are the books that you borrowed from her ?(4) Who that knows him would trust him at any time ?,2019/10/2,46,七、 “广义地点”:任何有形或无形的方位空间,在使用where引导定从时,我们提到了“地点”。 很多学生在理解这个概念时,片面地认为能看见的或有形 的方位才叫地点。对于地点的理解,我们应该采用 “广义地点”的概念。广义地点---任何有形或无形的方位空间。其中,无形的方位空间包括影视书籍、天体宇宙、 情形情况、状态程度、行为行动、思想言论, 等等。另外,广义地点在词汇上的表现形式有三种:(1)方位名词(2)方位介词短语(3)方位副词 但是,方位名词作先行词,定从不一定用where 引导。 (思考: 为什么说方位名词作先行词,定从不一定用where 引导? ),,2019/10/2,47,,[例 11 ] (1)The professor made a speech _______ he gave thanks for the special gift.A. which B. about which C. where D. that (2)The couple are always quarreling to the point ____ they may divorce. A. what B. that C. for which D. where(3) As to the film, do you still remember the plot _____ many beggars get down on their knees to ask for food?A. that B. where C. of which D. whose,C,in which,D,to which,注解: “达到…程度或地步”: to the degree where… to the point where… ; reach the point where …,B,in which,2019/10/2,48,(2)The couple are always quarreling to the point ____ they may divorce. A. what B. that C. for which D. where(3) As to the film, do you still remember the plot ___ many beggars go down on their knees to ask for food?A. that B. where C. of which D. whose,注解: “达到…程度或地步”:to the point where… / to the degree where…reach the point where …,D,to which,B,in which,2019/10/2,49,八、as 引导定从(含与which 定从的比较),主要内容 A。 as限制性定从用于固定的结构中:so/as / the same /such…as (指人或物,主宾表) B。 在限制性定从中,as 不可省, 而作宾语的which 可省 C。as 非限定从句除用在一般句子外,还可以用于“as is + 过去分词或形容词”等句型中。 D。先行词为主句之事情时,as/which必引导非限定从, as非限定从的位置灵活,而which非限定从必须在主句后 E。as非限定从句中可用积极词语对主句予以赞成、肯定、支持,which 非限定从句中可用消极词语对主句予以排斥、否定、反对 F。 “which+产生、引起、导致、造成、促使等词义的动词” ,在非限定从句中表示前边事情导致的直接结果(含义: “因而, 由此”)该种定从往往可以省略成作结果状语的 (thus) doing,
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