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Ergonomics in the Workplace 工作场所中的人体工程学,Agenda 主要内容,Ergonomics Principles人体工程学的原理 Ergonomics Interface 涉及人体工程学的领域 Body System 人体的构造 Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) 重复性累积伤害 Risk Factors 危险因素 Prevention of CTDs 避免重复性累计伤害 Elements of Effective Ergonomics 影响人体工程学的因素 Ergonomics Improvement Sharing 人体工程学改进经验的分享 Ergonomics Assessment人体工程学评估,Primary Objective 主要目的,Reduce the risk of work-related ergonomic injuries (acute strain/sprain) and illnesses (repeated trauma) 降低与工作有关的人体工程损伤(严重的肌肉紧张和扭伤)和病症(重复性的伤害)的危险,,,,,What is Ergonomics? 什么是人体工程学?,Ergonomics: Ergon – work Nomus - natural law 人体工程学就是教导我们如何遵循自然的法则进行工作。 Ergonomics is the science of adapting equipment, procedures and surroundings to people 人体工程学是一门研究如何为我们提供合适的设备、工作流程和环境的科学。,,,,Central Principle 核心原则,Human has limits and is fixed, but the job, the tools, the equipment, environment and facilities can be designed or changed within these limits 人类本身作为一个个体是有局限的,但是工作、工具、设备、环境和设施却是可以通过设计使它们控制在人体可操作范围之内的。 The goal is to achieveNeutral Posture & Within Limits我们的目标是在人体结构的限制内提供舒适的操作姿势,,,,Ergonomics Interfaces 人体工程学涉及的领域,,,Tool 工具,Task 任务,Workstation 工作场所,Employee 员工,Mounting 装配工具 Location 定位工具 Handle 搬运工具 Weight 举重工具 Vibration 震动工具,Machinery 机械装置 Fixture/Jigs 设备的活动范围 Clearance 设备的缝隙 Height/Reach 设备的尺寸 Work Surfaces 工作界面,Lighting 灯光 Noise 噪声 Temperature 温度 Chemical Agents 化学品,Lifting 提升 Twisting 旋转 Bending 弯曲 Forces 用力 Work Pace 工作速度,PPE 劳防用品 Training 培训经历 Motivation 工作方式 Conditioning 工作负荷 Body Dimensions 体格,Manage Work 工作的管理,Ergonomics Focus 人体工程学的关注点,Biomechanics Muscular strength, coordination 生物力学 肌肉的力量,协调性 Anthropometry Body dimensions 人体测量学 人的体格 Psychology Perception, cognition, effect of stress 心理学 感知力、认识能力和压力的影响 Physiology Vision, hearing, motor skills, reaction & recovery 生理学 视力、听力、运动力、反应和恢复能力 Engineering Time/Motion, equipment design 工程学 操作时间、姿势和设备结构的设计,,,,Body System 人体的构造,Body System,Musculoskeletal 肌肉与骨骼 Muscles 肌肉 Bones 骨骼 Tendons & Tendon Sheaths 肌腱和腱鞘 Ligaments 韧带 Bursa 粘液囊 Vascular 血管系统 Blood Vessels 血管 Nervous 神经系统 Nerves 神经,Musculoskeletal System 肌肉骨骼系统,Bones 骨骼 Form body’s framework 组成人类的框架 Muscles 肌肉 Dynamic Work 动态功能 Produce movement of body parts 为人体活动提供动力 Static Work 静态功能 Maintain position of body against forces of gravity 为人体抵抗外力和重力作用,Musculoskeletal System 肌肉骨骼系统,Tendons 肌腱 Fibrous ‘ropes’ which attach muscle to bone and assist muscle in pulling the bone 将骨骼和肌肉连接的纤维组织,可帮助肌肉带动骨骼活动。,,,Musculoskeletal System 肌肉骨骼系统,Tendon Sheaths 腱鞘 Tubular sacs containing fluid which enclose a tendon, minimizing friction and facilitating movement 围绕在肌腱周围的管状液囊,可以减少组织间摩擦并促进组织间活动能力。 Ligaments 韧带 Connect bone to bone at joint and strengthen the joint 连接骨骼与骨骼关节并巩固关节强度的组织,Musculoskeletal System 肌肉骨骼系统,Bursa 粘液囊 Fluid filled sacs, located in areas where ligaments and tendons pass over bones, which act to reduce friction and provide cushioning 在韧带和肌腱与骨骼接触的界面之间存在的液囊组织,可起到减少摩擦和缓冲的作用。,Vascular System 血管系统,Network of blood vessels which transport nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and remove waste products 血管的网络,负责输送营养和氧气到身体的各个器官组织并带走器官产生的废物 Arteries 动脉 Veins 静脉 Capillaries 毛细血管,Nervous System 神经系统,Network of cells including motor and sensory fibres which supply sensation and movement to body parts 由细胞组成的网络,包含运动与感知纤维。为身体提供感知和运动的能力,Cumulative Trauma Disorders 重复性累积伤害,Ergonomics Related Illness 与人体工程学有关的病症,Poor Ergonomics can cause…. 不良的人体工程学设计可能会导致……Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) 重复性累积伤害also known as也被称作Repetitive Strain Disorder 重复性劳损Repetitive Motion Injury 反复性动作损伤Occupational Overwork Syndrome 职业性过劳综合症Musculoskeletal Disorders 肌骨失调症,,,,Cumulative Trauma Disorder 重复性累积伤害,Minute damage to soft tissues that occurs over time from forces that exceed body’s capability to repair itself 超过身体可自愈能力的因重复过度劳作而产生的对软组织的累积伤害Injury 损伤 Illness 病症Sudden 突发 Cumulative 累积Visible 可视 Unseen 不可视Clear cut cause 诱因清晰 Multiple stressors 多诱因,,,,Symptoms of CTDs CTD的症状,Painful joints 关节疼痛 Pain in wrists, shoulders, forearms, knees 手腕、肩膀、前臂、膝盖疼痛 Pain, tingling or numbness in hands or feet 手或脚疼痛,发麻 Fingers or toes turning white 手指脚趾发白 Shooting or stabbing pains in arms or legs 手臂或腿刺痛 Back or neck pain 后背颈部疼痛 Swelling or inflammation 肿胀或发炎 Stiffness 僵硬 Burning sensation 灼伤感,,,,Cumulative Trauma Disorders,Muscular Disorders 肌肉紊乱 Tension Neck Syndrome, Low Back Pain 颈部紧张综合症,下腰酸痛 Tendon Disorders 肌腱紊乱 Tendonitis, Tenosynovitis, Epicondylitis, de Quervain’s Disease, Trigger Finger, Rotator Cuff Injury 肌腱炎,腱鞘炎,上踝炎,奎缅氏症,扳机指,撕裂 Nerve Disorders 神经失调 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome 腕管综合征,胸椎综合症 Neurovascular Disorder 神经血管紊乱 Vibration White Finger 振动白手指,Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 腕管综合征,Entrapment of the median nerve where it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist. The entrapment may be secondary to swelling and inflammation caused by repetitive use, arthritis, gout, fluid retention, or inherent anatomical characteristics. Night pain is typical and workers may not associate the pain with work.正中神经在经过腕管时被腕管韧带压迫的现象。这种压迫现象可能是由重复使用、关节炎、痛风,积水和先天性腕部构造缺陷而造成的腕部肿胀和发炎的副作用而产生的。通常会在夜间感到疼痛,而工人很少会把这一症状与工作联系起来。,,Thoracic Outlet Syndrome 胸廓出口综合症,,Compression of blood vessels and nerves in area of clavicle (collar bone). It causes pain in the neck and shoulder, numbness/tingling of the fingers, and weakening of the grip 锁骨下血管和神经受压迫的症状。它会导致颈部和肩部疼痛,并引起手指发麻和握力减小等现象。,Epicondylitis 上髁炎,Pain and swelling caused by excessive and repetitive forearm rotation which is not in alignment with the axis of rotation of the forearm. That axis defined as a line through the wrist to the capitulum of the humerous. 由前臂过度或重复不围绕前臂旋转轴扭转而造成的肿痛。我们定义这里的旋转轴为一条从腕关节贯穿到肱骨骨端的直线。,Inflammation of tendon,,Tenosynovitis 腱鞘炎,Inflammation of the synovial sheath surrounding the tendon secondary caused by excessive secretion of synovial fluid. The excessive secretion being caused by repetitive motion. 一种由肌腱周围腱鞘过多分泌液体而产生的继发性炎症。过多分泌的现象是由重复劳作产生的。,Tendonitis 肌腱炎,Repeated overuse or tension on the tendon causes inflammation and possibly fraying or tearing of tendon fibres. The tendon thickens and becomes irregular in form. It may calcify or become permanently weakened. 由重复性肌腱过度使用或紧张导致的肌腱纤维炎症、磨损或撕裂。这种症状会导致肌腱变厚和变形,最终可能会造成肌腱钙化或永久性功能衰退。,,Rotator Cuff Injury 旋转肌边创伤,Rotator cuff at shoulder is made up of muscles and tendons. It connect upper arm bone (humerus) with shoulder blade and helps to hold ball of upper arm firmly in the shoulder socket. Inflammation, painful tears or strains may occur in the shoulder joint area. 肩部的旋转肌是由肌肉和肌腱组成的。它负责连接上臂肱骨和肩胛骨,并将上臂球骨牢牢的固定在肩部骨槽上。不当操作会导致肩关节区域的严重、撕裂性疼痛和拉伤。,,Bursitis 黏液囊炎,Inflammable of the bursa. Often occurs in the areas around joints in shoulders, elbows or hips 黏液囊的炎症,主要发生在肩、肘和臀部关节处。,Shoulder Bursitis,Elbow Bursitis,Hip Bursitis,,De Quervain’s Disease 疼痛性腱鞘炎,Movement such as a twisting and forceful gripping with the hands causes inflammation of the tendon sheath (synovium) of the thumb. 由于手掌扭转和猛握而导致的拇指腱鞘发炎的症状。,,,Trigger Finger 扳机指,The flexing tendon of the finger becomes grooved and locked in the sheath, results from swelling within a tendon shealth. 手指屈肌腱由于肿胀导致无法通过腱鞘。,,Raynaud’s Syndrome 雷诺综合症,Excessive vibration causes damage to the blood vessels to the fingers. The tissues are unable to get oxygen and eventually die. Exposure to cold intensifies the disorder. Vibration to the whole body in conjunction with prolonged sitting may cause low back pain, abdominal, spinal, and bone damage 由过度振动导致的手指血管损伤。手指内组织无法获得氧分最终坏死。暴露在寒冷的环境下会恶化这一症状。全身接触振动伴随长时间保持坐姿还可能会导致下腰酸痛,腹部、脊椎和骨骼的损伤。,,Back Injury 背部损伤,Muscles, disks and ligaments are injured repetitively and become weakened and lose their ability to support the back. This makes the risk of severe injury more likely. Some conditions exacerbate our natural deficiency. These include: twisting, poor physical condition, and poor posture.,Back Injury 背部损伤,由于肌肉,腰椎间盘和韧带重复受伤导致其功能衰退无法起到支撑背部的作用。这会导致其他严重受伤的风险加大,在某些情况下还会使一些缺陷的影响被进一步放大。比如,身体的扭曲、身体不适和错误的姿势等。,Risk Factors 危险因素,Personal Risk Factors 个人风险因素,Age 年龄 Gender 性别 Hormonal Factors/Pregnancy 生理因素 Acute Injuries 受伤 Chronic Disease 慢性病 Attitude 工作态度 Training 受训情况 Strength 力量 Work method 工作方式,,,,,,Occupational Risk Factors 职业风险因素,Forceful Exertions 上肢高强度作业 Lifting, pushing, pulling, supporting, gripping, twisting, squeezing, pinching 起重、推、拉、支撑、抓握、扭转和挤压 Awkward Postures 不正确的姿势 Neck bending or twisting, elevated shoulder, rotated forearm, deviated wrist, overhead work, arms away from body, extended reach 颈部扭曲、肩膀抬举过高、前臂不正当扭转、手腕过度弯曲、超高作业、手臂距离身体太远作业和超正常身体活动范围作业。,,,,,Awkward Postures 不适当姿势,Postural Stress 姿势性压迫,Physical Stress,Shoulder Posture Stress 肩部姿势压力,Postural Stress on Back 背部姿态性压力,Postural Stress on Back 背部姿态性压力,Occupational Risk Factors 职业风险因素,Static Postures 静态姿势 Prolonged sitting or standing 持续坐着或者站着,,,,,Dynamic Work = Movement 动态工作=活动 Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles facilitates blood flow and muscles fatigue slowly 有节奏的肌肉收缩和放松慢慢地促进血液流动和肌肉的疲劳 Static Work = No Movement 静态工作=不活动 Continual contraction of muscles limits blood flow and muscles fatigue more quickly 持续的肌肉收缩限制了血液的流动使肌肉更容易疲劳,Occupational Risk Factors 职业风险因素,Repetitive Motions 重复性动作 Short cycle time or repeated motion patterns and/or postures within a short work cycle 短周期或者重复性动作或者姿势,,,,,Occupational Risk Factors 职业风险因素,Mechanical Stress 机械应力 Sharp edges, leaning on elbow, tools 尖锐边缘,靠在肘部,工具 Environmental 环境 Vibration, cold 振动,冷,,,,,,Prevention of CTDs 避免累积性损伤,Prevention of CTDs 避免累积性损伤,Maximise Lifting Efficiency 提高提升效率 Biomechanics of Lifting/CPU Lift 符合生物力学的提升/CPU提升 Minimise Risk Factors 减少风险因素 Reduce Awkward Postures 减少尴尬姿势 Reduce Excessive Forces 减少过多外力 Reduce Excessive Repetition 减少过多重复 Minimise Direct Pressure 减少直接压力 Provide Adjustability and Change of Posture 提供可调正的位置 Anthropometric Design 人体测量学设计 Maintain a Comfortable Environment 维护舒服的环境 Human Factors Engineering 人因工程学 Minimise Fatigue 减少疲劳 Exercise and Keep the Body Fit 练习保持身体健康,,,,Prevention of CTD避免累积性损伤,Maximise Lifting Efficiency 提高提升效率,,,,Biomechanics of Lifting 符合生物力学的提升,Lever Distance 力臂,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Lever Distance 力臂,Load far from Fulcrum 离开支点远,Load near Fulcrum离开支点近,Maximum Force on Low Back 后背压力最大,Minimum Force on Low Back 后背压力最小,,,Proper Lifting Technique 合适的提升技巧 Maintain Natural Back Curves 保持自然的后背曲线,Bend with your knees, not with your back 弯曲膝盖而不是后背 Lift with your legs and hold objects close to your body用腿部力量,将物体靠近自己的身体 When load is heavy, get help and plan ahead to avoid sudden load shifts 当荷载很重,寻求帮助,提前准备避免突然 Always be sure of your footing站稳,,,,Refer to CPU Lift参考CPU提升,Prevention of CTD 避免累积性损伤,Minimise Risk Factors 减少风险因素,,,,Reduce Awkward Postures 减少尴尬姿势,Use tools, equipment, and workstation layouts that allow us to work in the best possible posture, hence less stress on body 合理使用工具,设备和工作台以最佳姿势工作,减少压力 Neutral Position 中位 Keep arms low and elbows in 手臂低位,手肘向内 Maintain natural curve of the back 保持后背自然曲线 Maintain straight wrists 保持手腕笔直 Keep things within easy reach 将物品放在容易够到的位置 Rearrange layout of tools and equipment 重新安排工具和设备的位置 Reduce dimensions of work surface 减少工作面的尺寸 Tilt work surface 倾斜 Provide cutouts into the work surface工作面挖剪,,,,Reduce Awkward Postures 减少尴尬姿势,Work at proper heights 工作高度合适 Work elbow height, whether sitting or standing 在手肘高度工作,无论是坐着还是站着 Heavier work, requiring upper body strength, should be lower重的工作需要上肢力量,应低些 Lighter work, such as precision work or inspection tasks, should be higher轻的工作例如精细的工作或检查,应高些,,,,Reduce Awkward Postures 减少尴尬姿势 Working with arms raised 举起手臂的操作,Raise the worker 将工人提高 Use height adjustable work platforms 使用高度可调的平台 Use step stools or rolling stairs 使用踏步梯或者移动梯 Lower the work 工作降低 Store frequently used things below shoulder height 将经常使用的物品放到肩部以下位置 Bring work down and turn it on its side for better access 将工作放低 Lower section of overhead conveyors for loading and unloading 降低高度超过头部的传送带装卸部位 Use tools with longer handles 用长把手工具 Use telescoping or extension handles for non-power tools 非电气工具使用可伸缩把手 Use extendable or adjustable fixtures for power tools 电气工具使用可调节把手 Design for shortest workers 为最的矮员工设计 Keep things that are used frequently below 48 inches 所有物品1.2米以下 Limit reach distances to 26 inches 距离在0.67米内,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Back Bending 后背弯曲,Raise and tilt the work for better access 提高倾斜 Place work on adjustable tilt tables 将工件放在可调倾斜度桌面 Use bin tilters or angled box stands for loading and unloading containers 使用箱体倾斜器装卸容器Lower the worker工作降低 Use a stool to sit a little lower 坐椅子以降低高度 Rotate between bending, sitting, kneeling and squatting 不要长久保持一个姿势,在弯腰、坐姿、跪姿和蹲姿中切换Use tools with longer handles使用长柄的工具 Use telescoping or extension handles for non-power tools 非电气工具使用可伸缩把手 Use stand-up, rolling, power equipment instead of hand tools 尽量使用立式、可调节的动力设备来代替手动工具,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Back Bending 后背弯曲,Support the upper body 为上肢提供支撑 Use stools or creepers with chest support pads 使用有胸部支撑垫的座椅 Place one hand down for support when leaning forward 需要探身时请用一只手臂做支点,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Neck Bending颈部弯曲,Raise and tilt the work for a better view 抬高倾斜工作面以使使用更佳 Place work on adjustable tilt tables 将工作面放在倾斜度可调的桌上 Use paperwork on a document stand 使用文件台来做书面工作Use magnifiers to make things easier to see 看不清时请使用放大镜 Use a lighted magnifier for precision work 精细工作时可使用放大镜 Use video systems instead of microscopes 使用显像技术代替显微镜 Wear eye loupes 佩戴头戴式放大镜,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Twisting 扭身,Keep frequently used things directly in front of the worker 将经常使用的物品放在工人正前方宜拿取处 Use parts bins, document trays and other organizers to free up space 使用零件盒、文件夹和其他存储物来节省空间 Use a ‘Lazy Susan’ or turntable to bring things closer 使用可旋转的托盘来是物件更靠近操作位Prevent twisting while lifting 提升时避免扭身 Use curved conveyors to move things 使用可弯曲输送带来运送物品 Leave enough space so that workers can move their feet instead of twisting 留出足够的空间使工人可以调整位置避免扭身,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Twisting 扭身,Provide seating that moves easily 提供可动式座位 Seats that swivel or pivot 可旋转的座椅 Seats with casters for rolling 底座带滑轮的座椅 Remove armrest that get in the way 拆除妨碍移动的扶手,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Reaching 屈伸,Keep things within easy reach 使物件容易取得 Place things that are used often within an 18-inch reach 常用物件保持在45厘米范围内 Limit other reaches to 26 inches as much as possible 尽量使工作范围控制在66厘米范围内 Use a turntable or ‘Lazy Susan’ to bring things closer 使用可旋转的托盘来使物件更靠近操作位 Use flow racks in storage areas to bring supplies forward 储存区使用可移动式货架 Use diverters on conveyors to move things closer to the edge 在传送带上设置可转向装置使物件可更靠近传送带边缘,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Reaching 屈伸,Make work surfaces narrower or shallower 缩小工作面尺寸 Place workers on both sides of a wide work surface 在较宽的工作面上安排员工对坐使用 Locate conveyors so that they can be accessed from both sides 将传送带布置在可两端操作的位置上 Use tools to pull things closer 使用工具拉近物件 Use a hook or rake to pull boxes and other large things closer 使用钩或耙来拉近盒子或其他较大物件 Use a ‘grabber’ or ‘reacher’ to pick up smaller things 使用适当的工具来拾取小物件,Reduce Awkward Postures减少尴尬姿势 Wrist Bending 弯曲手腕,Use a different tool 换一种工具试试 Use angled hand tools 使用有角度的手动工具 Use a flexible attachment for work in tight spaces 在空间狭小的地方使用可灵活变通的工具 Use an in-line tool for work laying flat 水平面工作时使用可使手臂与水平面平行的工具 Use a pistol grip tool for upright work 在垂直面工作时使用手枪式握把的工具 Change the position of the work 改变工作位置 Tilt or rotate the work 旋转倾斜工作面 Redesign parts or the order in which parts are added to provide better access 重新设计部件或工序使操作更方便 Use an adjustable height work table to change the wrist angle 使用高度可调的工作台来改变手腕弯曲程度,





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