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英文时态(三):完成时态.ppt

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英文时态(三):完成时态.ppt
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英文时态:完成时态,完成动作: 1、现在完成(have∕has done) 2、过去完成(had done) 3、将来完成(will have done) 完成时态概述: 形式:have done 意义:完成时态表示的是在某一特定时刻(现在、过去或将来)之前开始发生的并持续到这一特定时刻或对这一特定时刻有影响的一个活动。,⑴现在完成时: 在现在之前(即过去)开始发生并持续到现在或对现在有影响的动作。 I have learned 2000 words so far. ⑵过去完成时: 在过去之前(即过去的过去)开始发生的并持续到过去或对过去有影响的动作。 I had learned 1000 words by the end of last year. ⑶将来完成时: 在将来之前(可能是过去、现在或将来)开始发生的并持续的将来或对将来有影响的动作。 I will have learned 3000 words by the end of next year.,一、现在完成时态(have∕has done),1、现在完成时态用法(一):延续到现在的动作或状态开始于过去的动作一直持续到现在,而且还可能继续持续下去。谓语动词一般为延续性动词。①An old woman walked out into the middle of the street. The policeman yelled to her, “Don’t you know what it means when I hold up my hand?” The lady said, “Sure I do. I have been a school teacher for 28 years now.” ②I have lived here for 3 years. ③The teacher has taught in this school since I came here. ④I’ve worked in this company since I left school. ⑤Since time began, man has lived in fear of fire.,或者,由上下文明确告知,开始于过去的动作只持续到说话时刻为止即已结束。例如: ①A:Have you waited long? B:I’ve waited for three hours. ②I’ve waited for him all day; I don’t want to wait any longer. 这种现在完成时的特点: 1)谓语动词一般为延续性动词。 2)动作发生的时间是过去,但这一动作持续到现在,而且还可能继续持续下去。 3)与这种用法的现在完成时态连用的时间状语通常是表示“一段时间”的时间状语,以说明某个动作或状态持续了多久。,※与此种用法的现在完成时态搭配的时间状语: ⑴since+时间点 ①I’ve worked in this company since 1980. ②I’ve worked in this company since I left school. 注意不能说:since three years,而要说since three years ago。 ⑵for+时间段 ①I’ve worked in this company for three years. ②Great changes have taken place in Beijing for the past few years.,⑶“到目前为止……”:until now, up until now, up to now, up till now, so far等。例如: We have up until now failed to take any action to decide on a common language that would further communication between nations. ⑷ “在最近几世纪/年/月以来……”:in the past few years, over the past few years, during the last three months, for the last few centuries, through centuries, throughout history等。例如: ①Throughout history man has had to accept the fact that all living things must die, for the very nature of life includes death. ②Through centuries the bizarre antics of sleepwalkers have puzzled police, perplexed scientists and fascinated writers.,2、现在完成时态用法(二):过去发生但与现在仍有联系的动作或状态 表示在不确定的过去发生的某一动作对现在仍有影响。谓语动词一般为短暂性动词。 ①He has broken his leg. ②He broke his leg. ③A modern girl went to the theatre with a vest and a pair of slippers. The ticket-examiner turned her away very politely: “Miss, NO ADMISSION WITH SLIPPERS.” “Real1y?” the girl took off the slippers and carried them in her hands, “Then I will go in barefootedly.” “Oh, my god!” the ticket-examiner cried out, “Fortunately, I have not told her NO ADMISSION WITH A VEST.” ④A:What has happened to Jane? She is crying. B:She broke the dining-room window. She has to face the music when her father gets home.,⑤Mr. Odds works in a bank and lives on his own. The only family he has is in the next town: his sister lives there with her husband, and her son, Mark. Last week Mr. Odds had a surprise. He drove home from the bank at the usual time, driving neither too slowly nor too fast; he parked his car where he always parked it, out of the way of other cars, and he went inside to make his evening meal. Straight away, there was a knock at the door. Mr. Odds opened the door, to find a policeman standing on the doorstep. “What have I done wrong?” Mr. Odds asked himself. “Have I driven on the wrong side of the road? Has there been some trouble at the bank? Have I forgotten to pay an important bill?” “Hello, Uncle,” said the policeman, “My name’s Mark.” ⑥You should have put the milk into icebox; I expect it undrinkable by now. A.became B.had become C.has become D.becomes,※第二种现在完成时态使用技巧 1、这种完成时态的肯定句不与“一段时间”的时间状语连用 常见的这类动词有:come, go, leave, kill, die, lose, buy, start, give, marry, join, bring, etc.),因此与它连用的时间状语不能是指“一段时间”。 ①I have heard from my girlfriend since I came to America.(×) ②I have bought this pair of shoes for a year.(×) ③He has left his hometown for 3 years.(×),⑶具有“新闻”性质 ①The President has been assassinated. ②He can’t go on holiday because he has broken his leg. 请认真体会下面对话: ①A:Have you seen the film “Forrest Gump”? B:Yes, I have. A:When did you see it? B:I saw it last spring. A:Did you see it alone? B:No, I saw it with my boyfriend.,②A:The President has been assassinated. B:Really? When did that happen? A:He was killed last night when he spoke in crowd. ③A:I hear that famous Chinese comedian has died. B:Really? When did she die? A:She was dead late last night. ④A:Has the boss come yet? B:Yes, he has. He is in his office now. A:When did he come? B:He came at 9 o’clock. He asked about you.,3、现在完成时态用法(三):到目前的一个时间段内重复发生的动作 ①For more than eighty years, scientists have argued over whether life exists on the planet Mars. ②Mary told her friend about her husband’s poor memory. “My husband is losing his memory. But I can’t complain. I have had three birthdays this year.” ③We have taken three tests so far this week. ④I have made many new friends since I came to Beijing. ⑤I have written my girlfriends one hundred love letters since we met.,4、其他使用现在完成时的结构 ⑴This/That/It is+序数词+名词+that+现在完成时 ①It is the third time that I’ve come to Beijing. ②It is the fifth time that someone has knocked at my door. ③—This is the tenth cup of coffee that I’ve drunk this evening. —How are you going to be able to fall asleep later if you keep on like this? ⑵This/That/It is+最高级或only修饰名词+现在完成时 ①This is the most interesting movie that I’ve ever seen. ②This is the best wine I have ever drunk. ③ It is the worst book I have ever read. ④ This is the hardest job I have ever had. ⑤ This is the only book he has written.,5、现在完成时与一般过去时比较 ⑴现在完成时的第二种用法。此时完成时表示的也是过去的动作或情况,只是当我们强调过去的事情对现在仍有意义或仍有重要影响时才用现在完成时。 ①He can’t go on holiday because he has broken his leg. ②He broke his leg. ③One of your friends is driving a sports car but he seems to be very nervous and not sure what to do. You may ask: Have you driven a sports car before? He may reply: No, this is the first time that I’ve driven a sports car. ④Did you drive to the party?,比较: ①I haven’t seen him this morning. ②I didn’t see him this morning. ③I have called him three times this morning. ④I called him three times this morning. ⑵在用于延续性动词时两种时态的区别,请比较: ①He lives in Beijing. He has lived here for 3 years. ②He lived in Beijing for 3 years and then emigrated to America. ③He has been in the army for 6 years. ④He was in the army for 6 years. ⑤I have smoked for 2 years. ⑥I smoked for 2 years.,二、过去完成时态(had done),1、过去完成时的意义:现在完成时表示一个开始于现在之前(即过去)并在现在仍持续或刚刚结束的动作。同理类推,过去完成时也可以用来表示在过去某一时刻之前(即过去的过去)就已开始的动作,这一动作:1)在该过去时刻仍然在继续,或在该过去时刻刚刚停止;2)在该过去时刻之前的某一时刻停止的动作;3)在该过去时刻之前的一段时间内重复的动作。,2、过去完成时的用法 ⑴开始于过去之前(即过去的过去)的动作或状态在过去这一时刻仍在持续。 ①I had stayed in America for two years when he moved here. ②I had learned 1000 words by the end of last year. ③He had collected ten books of stamps by the end of last month. ④We had studied English for six years when we entered college. ⑤It had snowed for a long time when I woke up.,⑥—It’s already 10 o’clock. I guess Bob and Amy won’t be coming to the party. —They called at nine to say that they’d been held up. 或由上下文明确告知动作或状态持续到过去这一时刻即停止。 ①I had waited for her for two hours in such a severe winter when she eventually turned up, which of course drove me mad. ②There had been fifty colleges in our city up till 1993.,⑵表示开始于过去之前的动作到过去这一时刻之前即已停止。 ①She had made everything ready before I came. ②Her baby had fallen asleep when she went into the room. ③Before John got home, Mary had gone to bed. ④I had just poured myself a cup of tea when the phone rang. When I came back from answering it, the cup was empty. Somebody had drunk the tea or thrown it away.,⑶在过去之前开始的动作,在过去之前的一段时间内重复发生。 ①I had written her 100 letters when she finally promised to marry me. ②I had proposed to her five times, but she still refused to marry me. ⑷过去完成时的其他用法 1)intend, mean, hope, want, plan, suppose, expect, think, propose, wish等动词的过去完成时可表示过去未能实现的计划、设想、意图或希望等。,①I had planned to go shopping with you but my mother came to see me just when I was about to go. ②She had hoped that he would come to date her, but he didn’t show up. ③I had intended to see you, but I was busy. ④They had hoped to see you off at the airport, but they got there too late. 2)用在“It was the+序数词(first, second…)或最高级…that…”句型中。例如: Last week I attended an international conference and saw Mr. Machine. It was the third time that I had met him.,3、一般过去时与过去完成时的比较 ⑴两个或两个以上相继发生的动作,用and或but按动作发生的先后顺序连接,此时要用一般过去时,而不用过去完成时。过去完成时则强调主语在过去某一时刻回顾更早的动作。具体来说,当我们在谈论过去某一事件时,想到了在这之前已发生的某事,这时用过去完成时态。例如: ①He opened the door and entered, but found nobody. ②He served in the army for ten years; then retired and married. His children are now at school.,③He had served in the airforce for ten years before he died in the jet-crash incident. ④I realized that we had met before. ⑤I heard voices and realized that there were several people in the next room. ⑥I saw empty glasses and cigar butts on the table and realized that someone had been in the room. ⑵在表示两个相继发生的动作时,用过去完成时可以表示在一个动作完成以后,另一个动作才开始发生,从而使得两个动作相互独立,彼此脱离开来。用一般过去时,则可能表示一个动作“导致”另一个动作,或两个动作之间有一种因果关系。,①When I had opened all the windows, I sat down and had a cup of tea. ②When I opened the window, the cat jumped out. ③When I had written my letters, I did some gardening. ④When I wrote him a letter, he came at once. ⑤When the singer had sung her song, she sat down. ⑥When the singer sang her song, she sat down.,完 成 时 态 的 练 习,1、用适当的时态填空 1) I began to teach in New Oriental School in 1997. This year is 2001. So far I (teach) here for 4 years. By 2000, I (teach) for 3 years. By 2002, I (teach) for 5 years. 2) Don’t spend your money like water. If you keep on like this, you (spend) all your money before the end of the trip. 3) “Was Clint at the party when you arrived?” “No, he (already, go) home.” 4) “Was Clint at the party when you arrived?” “Yes, but he (go) home soon afterwards.” 5) I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed. 6) The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (go) to bed. 7) Sorry I’m late. The car (break) down on my way here.,8) We (drive) along the road when we saw a car that (break) down, so we stopped to see if we could help. 9) Yesterday I had a phone call from Clint. I was very surprised. I (write) to him many times but he (never, reply) to my letters. 10) I met Clint a few days ago. He (just, come) back from holiday. He looked very well. 11) The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight. He (never, fly) before. 12) This traffic is terrible. We’re going to be late. By the time we (get) to the airport, Bob’s plane (arrive, already), and he’ll be wondering where we are. 13) Last spring I went to France. It was the first time that I (be) there. 14) This is the only novel that he (write).,15) This is the first time that I (take) the flight. 16) This is the most difficult job that I (ever, do). 17) Clint is phoning his girlfriend again. This is the fourth time that he (phone) her this evening. 18) A:Look! Somebody (spill) milk on the carpet. B:Well, it (be, not) me. I (do, not) it. A:I wonder who it (be) then. 19) A:Clint (break) his leg. B:Really? How that (happen)? A:He (fall) off a ladder. 20) I (lose) my key. I can’t get into my house. 21) I (lose)my key, so I couldn’t get into my house. But now I (find) it.,2、改错: 22) I have entered the university for two years. 23) He has come here for three hours. 24) The old lady has died for ten years. 25) He has left his native place for three years. 26) I have married for one year. 27) He has joined in the army for five years. 28) I have come to Beijing for seven years.,3、用正确时态填空,在合适的地方填人just, already, yet, before等。 29) A man sitting next to you on a flight seems very nervous but feels very excited. You can ask: ? (take a flight) 30) Jack is skiing from the top of the mountain. He doesn’t look very confident. You can ask: ? (ski from the top of the mountain) 31) After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says “Would you like something to eat?” you say: No, thank you. (have lunch). 32) You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps he has been successful. Ask him: ? (find a job),33) You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute! . (not/finish) 34) John goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says “Can I speak to John?” You say: I am afraid .(go out) 4、讨论下列完成时态是什么思维和用法。 35) Mary:How long have you been married? Lisa:This time — or altogether? 36) A Perfect Record Teacher:Young man, you haven’t handed in one homework assignment since we started this class. Won’t you please do tonight’s assignment? George:What? And ruin a perfect record?,37) I Don’t Know Lucy:Do you believe kissing is unhealthy? Lily:I couldn’t say—I’ve never… Lucy:You have never been kissed? Lily:I’ve never been sick. 38) Will He Lose His Job? First Clerk:Poor old Watkins has completely lost his hearing. I’m afraid he’ll lose his job. Second Clerk:Nonsense. He’s to be transferred to the Complaint Department. 39) A total of 36832 firs in China have killed 971 people during the first quarter of the year, injuring 1228 and causing 310 million yuan in direct economic losses, a source with the statistics said.,40) Former Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi, who had been in a coma(昏迷) for six weeks, died of a cerebral(大脑的) infarction(梗塞) at a Tokyo hospital.(日本前首相小渊惠三,在长达六星期的昏迷后,因闹梗塞死于东京一家医院。) 41) It’s reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory will have risen by about 10%.,
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