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英语名词考点归纳.ppt

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英语名词考点归纳.ppt
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,,Nouns,考点1 名词复数变化,1)规则变化 ①一般情况加s ◆math(s), physics, politics, news, James,the Whites ②x, s, sh, ch后加es ③“辅音字母+y”结尾去y变i加es,“元音字母+y”结尾直接加s ④以o结尾的“黑人英雄爱吃番茄土豆”加es,其他直接加snegro hero tamato potato,⑤以下以f, fe结尾的词去f, fe变ves树 叶 半 数 自 己 黄,leaf half self妻 子 刀 切 面 包 忙,wife knife loaf架 后 窜 出 一 只 狼,shelf wolf就 像 小 偷 逃 命 狂。thief life ◆scarf —— scarfs / scarves,,,,,,,,,,,2)不规则变化 ①a- eman woman policeman policewomanEnglishman EnglishwomanFrenchman Frenchwoman ◆German —— Germans ②oo- eefoot tooth goose ③单复同形sheep fish deer Chinese Japanese ④其他形式child — children mouse — mice,考点2 特殊形式的名词复数,①只有复数形式的名词clothes pants shorts jeans glasses ◆shoe, sock可以指单只鞋袜 ②集合名词: family class team (表示整体概念时作单数,表示整体中的个体概念时作复数) ★例一My class _____(be) like a big family.All my class _____(be) having English class.,is,are,③统称词 (指代全部,作复数主语,其前加the) the police the English the French ④一个名词具有多个复数含义单复同形 (强调鱼的条数)fishfishes (强调鱼的种类)people (一般指“人们”)people the people (“人民”或特指)单复同形 (“个人, ≥2人”) peoples (“民族”),,,考点3 可数名词与不可数名词,1)un.作主语谓语动词用单数There is lots of news in today’s newspaper. 2)既是可数又不可数的名词glass cn.玻璃杯 (pl. ~es) un.玻璃paper cn.报纸,论文 un.纸room cn.房间 un.空间fish cn.鱼 un.鱼肉chicken cn.小鸡 un.鸡肉onion cn.洋葱(整棵) un.洋葱(切碎),3)名词修饰语cn. cn.&un. un.基数词, a/an the, some littleevery, both enough(足够) a littlefew, a few most, more muchmany, lots of = a lot of too muchtoo many all,,,,考点4 名词的量化,1)名词量化的基本结构:基数词 + 量词 + of + 名词 (基数词大于1,量词变复数,名词为可数依情况变复数, 名词为不可数则没有复数形式) ★例二Please give me a glass of water.(变为复数句)Please give us some glasses of water.,2)单位量词 ①成对单位量词 pair ②万能单位量词 piece (量化un.含义多样)a piece of meat 一块肉a piece of paper 一张纸a piece of music 一首乐曲a piece of news 一条消息a piece of bread 一片面包a piece of advice 一条建议 ③其他单位量词 meter, kilo, box, set, bag, basket, bottle, cup, glass, group, bowl, plate,3)量化名词作主语动词选择依据量词单复数 ★例三Here _____(be) my shoes.Here _____(be) a pair of my shoes. ◆A group of children _____(be) playing soccer on the playground. 4)对数量进行提问 ★例四I have one apple. How many apples do you have?,are,is,is,★例五She bought three kilos of mutton._____ _____ ______ _____ she _____?She bought three kilos of pears._____ _____ _____ _____ she _____? ★例六He had two bowls of rice._____ _____ _____ did he have?He had two bowls of rice._____ _____ _____ ____ _____ did he have?,,How much mutton did buy,How many pears did buy,How much rice,How many bowls of rice,考点5 名词作定语,1)一般情况下名词单数作定语a shoe store some apple trees 2)sports作定语用复数形式a sports club some sports clothes 3)man, woman作定语随其后名词的单复数进行变化a man doctor —— some men doctors ◆注意girl和boy作定语的用法There’re 30 _____(girl) ________(students).,girl students,考点6 名词所有格,1)’s所有格的用法 ①一般在有生命名词的后面加’s,若名词以s结尾则只加’Lily’s book my parents’ photo ②A’s and B’s + pl. 各自拥有A and B’s + sig. 共同拥有 ★例七 Here is ______________(Tom and Tim) room. _________________(Tom and Tim) fathers are here.,Tom and Tim’s,Tom’s and Tim’s,③’s后若为shop, store, home, house, office,restarant等表示地点的名词, 则这些名词经常进行省略。My father is at the doctor’s (office).Tom is at the barber’s (shop). ★例八Jane and I had lunch at ______.A.Turner B.Turners C.Turner’s D.Turners’ ④时间,距离和地点前常用’stoday’s newspaper Beijing’s streets,⑤构成节日名词Children’s Day Teachers’ DayWomen’s Day Father’s Day Mother’s Day ⑥someone else’s 其他人的,别人的 2)of所有格 ①构成: the + n. + of + n./代词宾格 ②一般用于无生命的事物the gate of our school the name of the dog,3)双重所有格 ①构成: the + n. + of + ’s所有格/名物代 ◆名词性物主代词mine yours his hers its ours theirs ②of短语修饰的名词前通常有表示数量的限定词,如a, an, 基数词 some, a few, many等。 ③of所有格与双重所有格的区别a friend of my uncle(该人与我叔叔是朋友关系)a friend of my uncle’s(该人是我叔叔朋友中的一个, 完全等同于one of my uncle’s friends),,a photo of me(该张照片中的人是“我”)a photo of mine(该张照片的拥有者是“我”) ★例九1.My mother met a friend of ______.A.she B.she’s C.hers 2. —Is this a photo of ________?—Yes. Look, she laughed so happily then.A.your sister B.your sister’sC.your brother D.your brother’s,,Thank you!,
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