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英语语法《句子成分和基本句型的讲解》.ppt.ppt

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英语语法《句子成分和基本句型的讲解》.ppt.ppt
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2019/10/3,1,句子成分 和 基本句型,2019/10/3,2,(Members of a Sentence),2019/10/3,3,现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语(attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement)。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。,句子包括哪些成分?,1.主语:主语是在句子中说明全句中心主题的部分.一般由名词,代词,不定式,动名词或从句充当.它的位置一般在句首.,2019/10/3,4,The girl is pretty. Reading is useful. To see is to believe. They are good friends.,谓语:,谓语说明主语做什么,是什么,怎么样,由简单动词或者动词短语构成.,2019/10/3,5,They are teachers. She looks well. He studies hard. He laughed at his classmates. He can speak English.,宾语,宾语是动作,行为的对象,由名词,代词,短语,不定式,动名词,从句充当.它和及物动词一起说明主语做了什么,在谓语之后.,2019/10/3,6,She plays the piano. He often helps me. I like watching TV. She likes to go to shop this afternoon. I think that he is good guy.,表语:,表语说明主语是什么,或者怎么样,由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,短语,或者从句充当.表语位于系动词后面.,2019/10/3,7,I am a teacher. She is happy. Everybody is here. They are at home now. My job is to teach English. Seeing is believing.,补语:补充说明。(由动词类别来决定) 补语的构成形式:1)名词 2)代词 3)形容词 4)数词 5)不定式 6)-ing 形式 7)过去分词 8)介词短语 9)名词从句,主语补语 Tom was made monitor. 宾语补语 I made Tom monitor. 表语补语 I am sure to succeed.,2019/10/3,8,宾语补足语,在英语中,有些句子只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思,还必须在宾语后面家上宾语补足语才能表达完整的意思.它起补充说明宾语干什么,怎么样的作用. 它可以由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,现在分词和过去分词充当.,2019/10/3,9,If you let me go, I’ll make you king.Leave the door open. We found John out when we arrived.Make yourself at home.I saw him enter the hall.The boss keeps them working all day.I heard my name called.,定语,定语用来修饰名词或代词.形容词,代词,数词,名词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,分词,从句都可以充当定语.,2019/10/3,10,The black bike is mine.What’s your name? A broken vase.I have 5 books. A sleeping boy.They made paper flowers.The boy in the room is Jack.I have something to do.It is a swimming pool.,状语,状语用来修饰动词,形容词或副词.它表示行为发生的时间,地点,目的,方式,程度.一般由副词,介词短语,不定式或相当于副词的词或短语充当,也可由从句来充当.,2019/10/3,11,He did it carefully. Without his help, we couldn’t work it out. In order to catch up with my classmates, I must study hard. I was born on June 9th 1982 in G
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