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英语语法《句子成分和基本句型的讲解》.ppt.ppt

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英语语法《句子成分和基本句型的讲解》.ppt.ppt
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2019/10/3,1,句子成分 和 基本句型,2019/10/3,2,(Members of a Sentence),2019/10/3,3,现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语(attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement)。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。,句子包括哪些成分?,1.主语:主语是在句子中说明全句中心主题的部分.一般由名词,代词,不定式,动名词或从句充当.它的位置一般在句首.,2019/10/3,4,The girl is pretty. Reading is useful. To see is to believe. They are good friends.,谓语:,谓语说明主语做什么,是什么,怎么样,由简单动词或者动词短语构成.,2019/10/3,5,They are teachers. She looks well. He studies hard. He laughed at his classmates. He can speak English.,宾语,宾语是动作,行为的对象,由名词,代词,短语,不定式,动名词,从句充当.它和及物动词一起说明主语做了什么,在谓语之后.,2019/10/3,6,She plays the piano. He often helps me. I like watching TV. She likes to go to shop this afternoon. I think that he is good guy.,表语:,表语说明主语是什么,或者怎么样,由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,短语,或者从句充当.表语位于系动词后面.,2019/10/3,7,I am a teacher. She is happy. Everybody is here. They are at home now. My job is to teach English. Seeing is believing.,补语:补充说明。(由动词类别来决定) 补语的构成形式:1)名词 2)代词 3)形容词 4)数词 5)不定式 6)-ing 形式 7)过去分词 8)介词短语 9)名词从句,主语补语 Tom was made monitor. 宾语补语 I made Tom monitor. 表语补语 I am sure to succeed.,2019/10/3,8,宾语补足语,在英语中,有些句子只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思,还必须在宾语后面家上宾语补足语才能表达完整的意思.它起补充说明宾语干什么,怎么样的作用. 它可以由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,现在分词和过去分词充当.,2019/10/3,9,If you let me go, I’ll make you king.Leave the door open. We found John out when we arrived.Make yourself at home.I saw him enter the hall.The boss keeps them working all day.I heard my name called.,定语,定语用来修饰名词或代词.形容词,代词,数词,名词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,分词,从句都可以充当定语.,2019/10/3,10,The black bike is mine.What’s your name? A broken vase.I have 5 books. A sleeping boy.They made paper flowers.The boy in the room is Jack.I have something to do.It is a swimming pool.,状语,状语用来修饰动词,形容词或副词.它表示行为发生的时间,地点,目的,方式,程度.一般由副词,介词短语,不定式或相当于副词的词或短语充当,也可由从句来充当.,2019/10/3,11,He did it carefully. Without his help, we couldn’t work it out. In order to catch up with my classmates, I must study hard. I was born on June 9th 1982 in Guangxi. He is writing with a pen.,2019/10/3,12,有哪几种常见的句型结构?,2019/10/3,13,2019/10/3,14,基本句型 一: S V P (主+系+表) S │V(是系动词)│ P 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。 2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。 3. He │fell │in love. 他堕入了情网。 4. Everything │looks │different. 一切看来都不同了。 5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮 6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。 7. Our well │has gone │dry. 我们井干枯了。 8. His face │turned │red. 他的脸红了。,2019/10/3,15,系动词词义不完整,在句中不能单独使用(除省略句外),后面必须接有表语,系动词和表语一起构成合成谓语。,2019/10/3,16,一、系动词的分类: 常见的系动词大致可分为三类。 第一类:表示特征或状态的,有be, look, feel, seem, appear, smell, taste, sound, turn out(结果是、证明是)等。 You’ll be all right soon. You don’t look very well. I feel rather cold. He seems to be ill. It appears that he is unhappy. The roses smell sweet. The mixture tasted horrible. How sweet the music sounds! The day turned out (to be) a fine one,2019/10/3,17,第二类:表示从一种状态到另一种状态的变化,有become, get, grow, turn, fall, go, come, run等。He became a world-famous scientist. It is getting warmer and warmer. It grew dark. The food has turned bad. Yesterday he suddenly fell ill. Mary’s face went red. His dream has come true. The boy’s blood ran cold.,2019/10/3,18,第三类:表示保持状态的,有keep, remain, continue,stay等。 Keep quiet, children! The weather continued fine for a long time. It remains to be proved.,2019/10/3,19,1.系动词后的表语可以是名词、代词、数词、形容词、分词、动名词、不定式、副词、介词短语、词组、从句,系动词be可用于上述所有情况。The news was surprising.(分词) His job is teaching English.(动名词) The only method is to give the child more help.(不定式) I must be off now.(副词) The bridge is under construction.(介词短语) That would be a great weight off my mind.(词组) This is why he was late.(从句),2019/10/3,20,2.所有的系动词都可接形容词作表语,此处略举数例。 Our future will be beautiful. She looks unhappy today. Do you feel cold? You seem/appear ill. The food tastes delicious. The weather is turning/ growing/ becoming/ getting cold. He often went hungry.,2019/10/3,21,3.能用不定式作表语的系动词有:appear, seem, get, prove, remain, turn out等。 She appears/ seems to be very young. He appears/ seems to have caught cold. They got to be friends。 The meeting turned out to be successful. The theory proved to be right. Much remains to be done.,2019/10/3,22,4. 能接从句的有:be, seem, appear, sound, look等。 That’s why he fell ill. My idea is that we should help him. It seems/ appears to me that something is wrong. It sounds to me as if someone were trying to get into the house. Your voice sounds as if you had a cold. It looks as if it is going to rain.,2019/10/3,23,5. 能接介词短语的有:be, feel, look, sound, taste,remain等。 be是特别活跃的系动词,其后可接很多介词短语作表语。 He is at home/ in the library/ on the way home/ on holiday.They are on duty/ on strike/ on leave. The road is under repair.,2019/10/3,24,其他系动词能和介词搭配的范围很小。如: It feels like a rain.It looks like a rain. It sounds like a train going under my room. It tastes of apples.(这有苹果的味道。) The concert remains in my memory.,2019/10/3,25,6. 能接分词的系动词有:be, become, get, grow, seem, appear等。 His report was surprising/ disappointing/delighting/moving/ astonishing… The boy was moved/delighted/surprised/ disappointed/astonished。 He has become/ got/ grown/ interested in modern physics。 He seems/ appears drunk。 系动词后还可接代词、数词、动名词、副词及其词组,基本都是be的用法。其他系动词几乎不能这样用或很少这样用。,page43,2019/10/3,26,一. 对表示状态变化的系动词的考查 英语中常见的表示状态变化的系动词有 get , turn , turn out (结果是……), go , come (成为), fall , become 等。1. 对 go 的考查 系动词 go 的意义是“变成,成为”,后多跟形容词,如 go bad, go mad, go wrong, go hungry, go sour 等。例如: On hearing the news of the accident in coal mine, she ______ pale. A. got B. changed C. went D. appeared,分析:该题考查的是“ go+adj. ”系表结构。 got 和 changed 不能与 pale 搭配起来表达这一状态的变化,而 appeared 是表示状态存在的系动词。所以正确答案是 C 。,2019/10/3,27,2. 对 fall 的考查 系动词 fall 表示“(不知不觉地或突然地)进入……状态”,后常跟形容词、副词或介词短语等,如: fall ill (生病), fall apart (散开), fall asleep, fall into a deep sleep (睡熟)。例如: As she ____ the newspaper, Granny ______ asleep. A.read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read; fell,分析:该题第二空考查的是系动词“ fall + adj. ”结构, fall asleep 是短暂性动词短语,不能用于进行时态,故正确答案是 B 。句意是“她读报时,奶奶睡着了。”,2019/10/3,28,二 . 对表示状态存在的系动词的考查 常见的有 be, seem, appear, look, feel, smell, sound, keep, taste, remain, prove, stay, lie (处于某种状态), stand (处于某种状态)等。 1. 对 stay 的考查 stay 意为“保持原状,维持”,后面可以接形容词、副词、介词短语、名词等。 ① The weather has stayed warm all week. ② Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will ______ fresh for several days. A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed,分析:该题考查的是系动词 stay 后接形容词( fresh )的系表结构,它表示一种存在的状态,主动形式表示被动意义,这种结构一般不能用于进行时态,所以正确答案是 B 。,2019/10/3,29,2. 对 appear 的考查 appear 的含义是“似乎,好像,看来(如关于某人的性格、感情或意图)”,此时不用进行式,后接形容词、名词、动词不定式等。① She appeared rather upset about something. 看来有些什么事使她心烦。 ② Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears _______ everything. (上海 2001 ) A. to tell B. to be told C. to be telling D. to have been told 分析:句意是“一定要把一切真相告诉你妈妈。她看上去已经知道一切事情。”句中 tell 后面没有宾语,故用不定式的被动式,又因为“知道一切”发生在“告诉真相”之前,要用完成式。所以正确答案是 D 。,2019/10/3,30,基本句型 二:S V (主+谓) 主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如boy),主格代词(如you),动词不定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家! 谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如:We come. 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。,S │ V (不及物动词) 1. The sun │was shining. 太阳在照耀着。 2. The universe │remains. 宇宙长存。 3. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。 4. Who │cares? 管它呢? 5. What he said │does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。 6. The pen │writes smoothly 这支笔书写流利。,2019/10/3,31,主语可有修饰语-定语,谓语可有修饰语-状语。,如: 1. The red sun rises in the east. 2. So they had to travel by air or boat. 3.We got up early so as to catch the first bus. 4. She sat there alone, reading a novel. 5. He came back when we were eating. 6.Weak buildings will fall down in an earthquake, but strong ones may stay up.,2019/10/3,32,巩固练习:,1.她昨天回家很晚。2.会议将持续两个小时。3.在过去的十年里我的家乡已经发生了巨大变化.4.1919年,在北京爆发了“五.四”运动。5.每天八时开始上课。,2. The meeting will last two hours.,3. Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years.,4. The May Fourth Movement broke out in Beijing in 1919.,5. Classes begin at eight every day.,1. She went home very late yesterday evening.,基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them等 S │V(及物动词)│ O 1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案? 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。 4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。 5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。 6. He │said │“Good morning.“ 他说:“早上好!“ 7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。 8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。,2019/10/3,33,2019/10/3,34,巩固练习:,1.昨晚我写了一封信。 2.今天下午我想同你谈谈。3.这本书他读过多次了。4.他们成功地完成了计划。5.那位先生能流利地说三种语言。,I wrote a letter last night.,I want to talk with you this afternoon.,He has read this book many times.,They have carried out the plan successfully.,That gentleman can speak three languages fluently.,基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。 4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。 5. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 6. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。,2019/10/3,35,这类句型常有“给某人某物“、“送某人某物“、“留给某人某物“等意思。常见的这类谓语动词有,give(给某人……), bring(带给某人……), tell(告诉某人……), send(送给某人……), leave(留给某人……), pass(递给某人……), read(给某人读……), write(给某人写……), take(给某人拿……), show(给某人看……), teach(教某人……), get(给某人弄到……), award(授予某人……),lend(借给某人……), rent(租赁某人……), buy(给某人买……), pay(支付某人……), hand(递给某人……), recommend(将某人推荐给……)等。例如: (注:上面各词的中文释义是刻意按照该词的常用动词句型而给的,以便于大家更好地理解该词出现于哪个基本句型中。) She brought me a shirt .她给我带来一件衬衣。 Pass him the dictionary , please.请将词典递给他。 I lend him my bicycle.我把自行车借给他了。,2019/10/3,36,2019/10/3,37,但若要先说出直接宾语(事物),后说间接宾语(人),则要借助于介词to或for。如:He brings cookies to me every day.She made a beautiful dress for me.,2019/10/3,38,用to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人。 用for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人。 常跟双宾语的动词有:(需借助to的)bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask等;(需借助for 的) buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing, save, spare等。,2019/10/3,39,巩固练习: 1.Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 2.奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。3.请把那本字典递给我好吗? 4.他把车票给列车员看。,Mr Johnson taught us German last year.,Grandma told me an interesting story last night.,Would you please pass me the dictionary?,He showed the ticket to the conductor.,2019/10/3,40,说明: 此结构由“主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语”构成。宾语与宾语补足语之间有逻辑上的主谓关系或主表关系,若无宾语补足语,则句意不够完整。 The sun keeps us warm. I heard him singing. You must get your hair cut.,基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补),S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war| made| him |a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 New methods |make |the job| easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 I |often find| him |at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher| ask |the students |to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词 I |saw |a cat |running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路.,2019/10/3,41,常带复合宾语结构的及物动词有:,elect(选举) , feel(感觉到) , find(发现) , get(使得) , have(使,让) , hear(听到) , imagine(想象) , keep(保持) , make(使) , notice(注意到) , see(看见) , let(使) , smell(闻到) , start(使……开始) , watch(注视,看) , appoint(任命) , believe(相信) , call(称) , catch(发现) , allow(容许) , ask(请求,要求) , cause(使得) , consider(认为) , expect(预期) , know(知道) , tell(告诉) , think(想,认为) , want(想要) , wish(希望) ,listen to(听) , look at(看,瞧)等等。 例如: We elected him our monitor .我们选他当班长。 President appointed John manager of Marketing . 总裁任命约翰为营销部经理。The news made me happy .那消息使我很高兴。 We know him to be an expert .我们知道他是专家。 The story made us laugh .那故事使我们笑了起来。 He heard somebody opening the door . 他听见有人在开门。 I found myself in dark .我发现自己还蒙在鼓里。,2019/10/3,42,2019/10/3,43,用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语的后面,以使句子结构平衡,是英语常用的句型结构方式。即:主语+谓语+it+宾补+真正宾语。如: I found it very pleasant to be with your family.,2019/10/3,44,巩固练习: 1.我们叫她Alice. 2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 3.他们把小偷释放了。 4.我要你把真相告诉我。 5 .卫兵命令我们立即离开。 6. 每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。 7.他每个月理一次发 8.我们不会让她在晚上外出的。,,We call her Alice.,All of us considered him honest.,,They have set the thief free.,I want you to tell me the truth.,The guards ordered us to leave at once.,Every morning we hear him read English aloud.,He has his hair cut every month.,We won’t let her go out at night.,句子成分练习题( 一 ) (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4分, 4分钟) ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.,2019/10/3,45,,,,,(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词(10分, 10分钟) ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast,2019/10/3,46,,,,,,(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语(10分,10分钟) ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who “Father Christmas“ really is.,2019/10/3,47,,,,,,,,,,,,,,(四) 挑出下列句中的表语(5分, 5分钟) ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.,2019/10/3,48,,,,,,(五) 挑出下列句中的定语(6分,6分钟) ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!,2019/10/3,49,,,,,,,,(六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语(6分, 6分钟) ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?,2019/10/3,50,,,,,,,,(七) 挑出下列句中的状语(8分, 8分钟) ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.,2019/10/3,51,,,,,,,,,,,(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(5分, 5分钟) ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?,
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