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庞贝 课文讲解.ppt

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庞贝 课文讲解.ppt
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Pompeii (P10~P16),from one end of the town to another 从城市的一端到另一端They stared at each other, puzzled,troubled.,形容词作状语,,主句,A black cloud was rising from the shattered summit of the mountain.,shatter: [v.] 1, to break into small pieces suddenly ; to make sth. break into pieces suddenly. (使)破碎,破裂 eg: I dropped the glass and it shattered into pieces. 2.to destroy one's feelings ,hopes,etc.completely. (使感情,希望等)粉碎,破灭 eg: This accident made his whole world shattered into million pieces. 3. to make ab. feel extremely shocked and upset .使极为惊愕难过;给予极大打击eg: The unexpected failure shattered us .[补]:shattering [adj.]令人非常惊愕难过的;给人极大打击的shattered [adj.]非常惊愕难过的;遭受极大打击的;精疲 力竭的,,同义词,shatter,smash?,break ?,crush?,打碎,(使)破碎,1.The vase __ into pieces on the floor. shatter指某物在一击之下破碎为许多碎片,多用于易碎的东西。2.They found all the furniture in the room __ .smash指突然而猛烈地重击某物,使之破碎并发出声响。 3.The thief __ the window and got into the house.break常用词,含义广泛,多指用力将坚硬物打破或损坏。4. The wokers __ the rocks into powder with hammers.crush指将某物置于两个相反力量之间挤压,以使其破碎或损伤。A.smashed B.crushed C.broke D.shattered,,(B),(C),(D),(A),辨?,Like the trunk of a tree, it rose in the air, branching out as itclimbed.,,主句,Like the trunk of a tree,,方式状语,,paraphrase,branch: [v.] 1.to divided into two or more smaller or lesser important parts.分开,分叉 eg: Let's meet where the road branches.[n.] 1.a part of a tree that grows out from the trunk 树干 2. a local office or shop that belongs to a large company or organization 分支,分行,分布,分店 eg: The organization has branches all over the country. [补] branch out 涉足(新工作);拓展(新业务) eg :We decided to branch out our own .我们决定自己开业 branch off 分叉,改道,转道eg : After a few miles ,a small road branched off to the right. 过了几英里过后,一条小路向右岔开了,Like a tree trunk dividing into many branches while the tree is growing ,the black cloud of vocanic ash from the crater expanded in different directions as it rose.,现在分词短语作 伴随状语,,,The sound of the explosion died away,but it still reveberated in everyone's ears.,,,,,,die away:逐渐减弱;逐渐模糊;逐渐消失 [补]die down :逐渐变弱,逐渐平息;逐渐暗淡 die out: 灭绝;消失,reverberate: [v.] 1.to be repeated a couple of times as a sound is sent back from different surface 回响;回荡2.to seem to shake as a result of a loud noise震颤;摇晃 eg: The house reverberated with the sound of music and dancing .3.to have a strong impact on people for a long time or over a wide area 有长久深刻的影响;产生广泛影响 eg :This event continues to reverberate throught the whole family . 这件事情持续影响着整个家族 [近] echo [v.] 回响;发出声音,Paraghrase: Even when the loud sound stopped, people did not recover from the shock.,这里的over表示在···之上,那可不可以用above替换呢?,,(P5) above和over均可表示位置高于···或在···之上 但是表示从物体的一边移至另一边的时候只能用over over长与数目,数量,年龄,金钱和时间连用,No,one another 同义短语? each other (P1392,P628),one another pron.Used to indicate a reciprocal relationship or reciprocal actions among the members of the set referred to by the antecedent, often with theimplication that the actions are temporally ordered: The students help one another. The waiters followed one another into the room.,,,They rushed to the temples -- the Temple of Jupiter,the Temple of Apollo,the Temple of Isis.,,,,,,,朱庇特,是古罗马神话中的主神,也是古希腊神话中的宙斯,阿波罗,是古希腊神话中的 太阳神,伊西斯,是古埃及的 生育女神,希腊神话,--西方文化与文学的两大源头之一,创世,根据希腊神话,宇宙间原为混沌一片(开俄斯),后来从开俄斯中产生了地母(盖亚),盖亚又生下乌拉诺斯(天空),乌拉诺斯成为世界的主宰。他与地母盖亚结合,生下六女六男十二位天神,总称“提坦”,还生了三个独眼巨怪和三个百手巨怪,后面这六位成了怪物的始祖。乌拉诺斯十分仇视自己的子女,一生下来就把他们关在地下,不许他们见到光明。其中有一个叫克洛诺斯的进行反抗,救出了被囚的兄弟姐妹,做了天神。克洛诺斯娶了妹妹瑞亚为妻,因为害怕重蹈父亲的覆辙,于是他把他的子女一降生就吃掉。但最小的儿子宙斯却被瑞亚藏到了起来。宙斯在克里特岛长大以后,设计让克洛诺斯吐出了所有的子女,然后联合兄弟姐妹一起与克洛诺斯交战。经过十年的“提坦之战”,终于推翻了克洛诺斯,建立起以宙斯为主宰的神的庞大家族,并且聚居在奥林匹斯山上,称为“奥林匹斯神统”。,天神,奥林匹斯神统中,以宙斯为中心有12位主神,他们都是宙斯的亲属或子女。如赫拉是神后,雅典娜是智慧女神,阿波罗是太阳神,阿尔米斯是月神,阿瑞斯是战神,哈台斯是幽冥神,波塞冬是海洋神,阿弗洛狄忒是爱情女神,得墨忒耳是农神,赫淮斯托斯是神使。 除了12位主神以外, 还有一些神也很著名,如酒神狄俄尼索斯,9个文艺女神缪斯,3个命运女神摩伊拉,3个复仇女神厄尼厄斯以及盗天火给人类的“恩神”普罗米修斯等等。,十二主神--宙斯,宙斯(zeus):宙斯是克洛诺斯之子,万神之王,主管天空.希腊神话中的至高神,掌握雷电,所以又被称为雷神。在母亲瑞亚的支持下,杀了父亲克洛诺斯,成为了第三代神王。性格极为好色,常背着妻子赫拉与其他女神 和凡人私通,私生子无数。宙斯的象征物是雄鹰、橡树和山峰;他最爱的祭品是母山羊和牛角涂成金色的白色公牛。,十二主神--赫拉,天后赫拉(Hera):赫拉是克洛诺斯之女,宙斯的姐姐和妻子;她主管婚姻和生育,是妇女的保护神;赫拉气质高雅, 容颜美丽,且对伴侣忠贞不渝,无愧于天后的地位,但她的善妒亦闻名于世,因此,赫拉和宙斯经常发生激烈争吵,不过,通常宙斯的花言巧语又总能让他们和好如初.赫拉的象征是孔雀,因为这种有着五彩缤纷羽毛的鸟是美丽壮观的夜空的象征,而天空正是天后赫拉光彩照人的脸庞。,十二主神--得墨忒耳,★农神:得墨忒耳丰产、农林女神,是克罗诺斯与盖亚的女儿,宙斯的二姐与第四位妻子。她掌管农业与丰产给予大地生机,教授人类耕种。她与宙斯生下珀耳塞福涅。,十二主神--波塞冬,海神(Poseidon): 波塞冬,宙斯的二哥,手持巨大三叉戟,统领海中所有生物。有被描写为半人半鱼的模样,能呼风唤雨。性格凶暴残忍。★ 马和牛是他的圣物。他非常喜欢马,因此,他统治海洋后,将几匹马变成了长有尾鳍的鱼马杂交动物,让它们在水中也为他拉车。,十二主神--阿波罗,太阳神:阿波罗,阿尔米斯的孪生兄弟。阿波罗又名福波斯,意思是“光明”或“光辉灿烂”。阿波罗是光明之神,在阿波罗身上找不到黑暗,他从不说谎,光明磊落,所以他也称真理之神。阿波罗很擅长弹奏七弦琴,美妙的旋律有如天籁;他精通箭术,他的箭百发百中,从未射失;他也是医药之神,把医术传给人们;而且由于他聪明,通晓世事,所以他也是寓言之神。 阿波罗掌管音乐、医药、艺术、寓言,是希腊神话中最多才多艺,也是最美最英俊的神祗,阿波罗同时是男性美的典型。月桂树是他的圣木,最喜欢的宠物是海豚和乌鸦.,十二主神--阿尔米斯,月神:阿尔米斯,她是宙斯与黑暗女神勒托所生,是阿波罗的孪生姐妹。阿尔米斯与阿波罗一样,司掌光明,她所掌管的就是月亮。除了是月亮女神外,她还很喜欢狩猎,她射箭的技艺很高,经常在山林中追逐野兽。因此她除了是月亮女神外,还是狩猎女神。,十二主神--雅典娜,智慧和战争女神:传说是宙斯与聪慧女神墨提斯所生,因有预言说墨提斯所生的儿女会推翻宙斯,宙斯遂将她整个吞入腹中,谁知头痛不已,在忍无可忍下召来赫淮斯托斯,劈开头颅,从宙斯的脑里跳出来的是一住全身甲胄,挺举金矛的女神,她就是雅典娜。雅典娜是处女神,聪慧且具有威力,是宙斯最宠爱的女儿。雅典娜是希腊人(特别是雅典人)最崇拜的女神,雅典城的名字就是用女神的名字命名的,而且亦是她专有的城市。她传授希腊人纺纱、织布、造船、治金和炼铁等各种技能,还发明犁耙,驯服牛羊,因此她也是农业与园艺的保护神。她还是法律和秩序的保护神。,十二主神--阿佛洛狄忒,美神:阿佛洛狄忒,罗马名字维纳斯,是宙斯的女儿。阿佛洛狄忒象征爱情与女性的美丽,她有古希腊最完美的身段和样貌,一直被认为是女性体格美的最高象征。阿佛洛狄忒的美丽,使众女神羡慕,也使众天神都追求她,甚至连父亲宙斯也追求过她。但当宙斯的求爱遭到拒绝之后,宙斯就把她嫁给既丑陋又瘸腿的火神赫淮斯托斯。但是阿佛洛狄忒却爱上战神阿瑞斯,并和阿瑞斯结合生下几个儿女,其中包括小爱神厄洛斯(丘比特)。,十二主神--阿瑞斯,战神:阿瑞斯,他是宙斯与赫拉的儿子。他司职战争,形象英俊,性格强暴好斗,十分喜欢打仗,而且勇猛顽强,是力量与权力的象征,好斗与屠杀的战神。但他同时是嗜杀、血腥,人类祸灾的化身. 他是骁勇,凶残,狡诈,非理性的,为战争而战争的神。曾因与工匠之神的妻子美神阿佛洛狄忒[即维纳斯]私通,被装进一张工匠之神特制的大网中而无法脱身。兀鹰是他的圣鸟,宠兽是狗,十二主神--赫淮斯托斯,火神:赫淮斯托斯,是宙斯与赫拉的儿子。长的奇丑,跛足,是美丽神界的一大败笔!但却娶了最最美丽的女神阿佛洛狄忒。他曾说过一句话“我很丑,可是我很温柔”。他热爱和平,在天上人间都很受欢迎。他是火神,亦是诸神的铁匠,具有高超的技巧,制造了许多的武器、工具和艺术品。阿波罗驾驶的日车,厄洛斯的金箭、银箭都是他铸制的.,十二主神--哈迪斯,冥王哈迪斯(hades):冥王,他是宙斯、波塞冬、得墨忒尔的兄长,主管冥界,力量很强,但性格平和。除了抢夺丰收女神得墨忒尔之女春之女神玻尔塞富涅为妻外,无它恶行。最喜爱黑色,最爱的祭品是全身裹着黑纱的黑母羊或黑公牛。,十二主神--赫尔墨斯,神使:赫耳墨斯,他是宙斯与女神迈亚所生的儿子。他动作敏捷幽雅,脚穿带翼凉鞋,头戴有翅膀的低冠帽,手握双蛇盘绕的魔杖,速度如飞,成为天界众神传令的使者。后为旅人,商人,盗贼的保护神,经常化为凡人下界帮助保护者.是最聪明狡猾的神。在奥林匹斯山担任宙斯和诸神的使者和传译,他是宙斯最忠实的信使,为宙斯传送消息,并完成宙斯交给他的各种任务。,“不和的金苹果“,相传希腊将领阿喀琉斯的父母举行婚礼时,没有邀请不和女神厄里斯,她来到席间扔下一个“不和的金苹果”,写“赠给最美的女神”。赫拉、雅典娜和阿弗洛狄忒三位女神为了争夺这个金苹果争吵来。宙斯让她们找特洛伊王子帕里斯评判。三位女神各许帕里斯以最大的好处,赫拉许他成为最伟大的君主,雅典娜许他成为最聪明勇敢的战士,阿弗洛狄忒答应许配给世界上最美丽的女子。帕里斯不爱江山爱美人,把金苹果判给了爱情女神。事后,爱情女神把他引到斯巴达,趁斯巴达国王外出之际,拐走了美丽绝伦的的王后海伦,并劫走大批财富。希腊各部落为了夺回海伦联合起来,渡海远征特洛伊。战争进行了十年,众神各助一方。最后,希腊将领奥德修斯设计,把一只内藏兵将的巨大木马遗弃城外,假装撤退。木马被特洛伊人拖进城中。入夜,希腊人里应外合,终于攻陷特洛伊。战后,希腊人各携财宝奴隶还乡。,阿波罗的爱情故事,丹芙妮是位妩媚动人的仙女。有一天当她兴高采烈地在林中游玩时,她发现太阳神阿波罗用异常惊奇与羡慕的目光盯着自己。光芒四射的太阳使她害怕得飞跑起来。热切的太阳神紧随其后,竭力叫喊让她止步。她的美丽与优雅触发了他的激情。他惟恐这将是他们的最后一面。快步如飞 的仙女拚命地奔跑,但情绪激昂的阿波罗紧追不放。她越过旷野,穿过人迹罕至 的树林,但追赶的脚步声愈加逼近。他一边追赶,一边恳求心爱的仙女放慢脚步。 他害怕仙女在石道上跌倒会擦破她那闪耀的皮肤。但奔逃的仙女根本不顾及这些。她甚至没朝身后瞥一眼,最终她气喘吁吁地向她的父亲(河神)求救。她 的恳求马上得到了回答。她很快发现自己的身体地紧附地面。接着,娇嫩的皮 肤上长出一层松软的树皮,她变成了一棵月桂树。太阳神唉声叹气地拥抱着树干,树干缩细了。为了表示他对仙女未泯的爱情,他将月桂树作为他最喜爱的树种,并决定将它作为一种对荣誉与威望的奖励,把它授予那些永恒的诗人和流芳百世的诗。因此最杰出的诗人总希望获得桂冠诗人的尊号。,丘比特,厄洛斯(丘比特)厄洛斯是爱神,它的拉丁名称丘比特更为人熟知。他是阿瑞斯和阿芙罗狄蒂的儿子,是一位小奥林波斯山神。他的形象是一个裸体的小男孩,有一对闪闪发光的翅膀。他带着弓箭漫游。他恶作剧地射出令人震颤的神箭,唤起爱的激情。给自然界带来生机,授予万物繁衍的能力。这位可爱而又淘气的小精灵有两种神箭:加快爱情产生的金头神箭和中止爱情的铅头神箭。另外,他还有一束照亮心灵的火炬。尽管有时他被蒙着眼睛,但没有任何人或神,包括宙斯在内,能逃避他的恶作剧。有一次这位淘气的精灵被自己的箭射中。对人间少女普赛克炽热的爱在他心中复苏,以致于他不顾他母亲的干预,鼓起勇气让宙斯给予公正评判。厄洛斯起了重大作用的另一个著名的故事是亚尔古英雄的远征。美狄亚,国王埃厄忒斯的女儿,被厄洛斯的神箭射中,和伊阿宋一起寻觅金羊毛,最后成为这位英雄的妻子。,普罗米修斯,普罗米修斯是泰坦巨人之一。他用粘土造出了第一个男人。雅典娜赋予了这个男人灵魂和神圣的生命。普罗米修斯还花费了很多时间和精力创造了火,并将之赠予人类。火使人成为万物之灵。在这之后,举行了第一次神与人的联席会议。这个会议将决定烧烤过的动物的哪一部分该分给神,哪一部分该给人类。普罗米修斯切开一头牛,把它分成两部分:他把肉放在皮下,将骨头放在肥肉下。因为他知道自私的宙斯爱吃肥肉。宙斯看穿了他的把戏。普罗米修斯偏袒人类,这使宙斯感到不快。因此,他专横地把火从人类手中夺走。然而,普罗米修斯设法窃走了天火,偷偷地把它带给人类。宙斯对他这种肆无忌惮的违抗行为大发雷霆。他令其他的山神把普罗米修斯用锁链缚在高加索山脉的一块岩石上。一只饥饿的老鹰天天来啄食他的肝脏,而他的肝脏又总是重新长出来。他的痛苦持续了三万年。而他坚定地面对苦难,从来不在宙斯面前丧失勇气。最后,海格立斯使普罗米修斯与宙斯恢复了他们的友谊,杀死了老鹰,解救了人类的老朋友。,诸神之战,,An hour went by and darkness still shrouded everything .All was confusion. The people of Pompeii now knew that their doom was at hand.,doom: [v.] to make sb./sth. certain to fail,suffer,die,etc使···注定要失败(或遭殃,死亡等) eg: The plan was doomed to failure. [n.] death or destruction ; any terrible even that sb. cannot avoid.死亡;毁灭;厄运;劫数 eg : meet one's doom 死亡[补] doom and gloom 悲观失望;无望;前景黯淡 eg: Despite the obvious setbacks , it is not all doom and gloomfor our team. 尽管明显受挫,但对于我们队来说并非胜利无望,,,at hand : (在时间或距离上)接近 eg: Keep a dictionary at hand when learning English . 学英语的时候手边放本字典。It seemed that there was trouble at hand .似乎有麻烦要来。,Paraghrase: An hour passed, but things did not improve and darkness still covered everything.There was total chaos everywhere.The people of Pompeii now knew that they would not survive the eruption.,Other buildings were collapsing under the weight of the pumice stones.,collapse: [v.] 1.to sit or lie down and relax 坐下或躺下放松 eg: Every time back from the gym, I like to collapse on the sofa and watch TV.每次从健身房回来,我都喜欢倒在沙发上看电视。 2. to fall down or fall in suddenly (突然)倒塌,塌陷 eg: Many houses collapsed in the earthquake.许多房屋都在地震中倒塌了。 3. to fall suddenly or completely 突然失败;崩溃;瓦解 eg: Their relationship has almost collapsed as a result of the affair.经过这件事情他们的关系几乎瓦解。[补] collapsed [adj.]倒塌的;崩溃的 elapse [v.] (时间)消失,流逝 lapse [v.] (合同,协议等)终止;衰退,,In these first few hours, only the quick-witted managed to eacape.A wealthy wool merchant called his family together and crammed jewelry and money into a sack .Lighting a torch ,he led his little band out into the nightmare of the streets.,the quick-witted意为机智灵敏的人, the +adj.表示某一类人 ,如 the yong ,the rich,,,,,cram :[v.] 1.to push sb./sth. or move into a small space 把···塞进;挤满;塞满 eg : She crammed six people into her car.她把6个人硬塞进她车里。 2. to learn many things in a short time ,in preparation for an exam (为应考)临时死记硬背 eg : He has been cramming for the final examinations all week .他整个星期都在为期末考试临时抱佛脚。[补] cram sth. into /onto sth. 把···塞进···cram for sth. (为考试)临时死记硬背 [同族] crammed [adj.] 塞满的;挤满的;拥挤不堪的,band :[n.]1.a small group musicians who paly popular music together 流行音乐乐队 2.a group of people formed together for the samebelief or purpose 一伙人,一帮人 eg : a band of outlaws 一帮歹徒,nightmare: [n.] 1.a very frightening or unpleasant dream 噩梦eg:He still has nightmares about the accident .他仍然做恶梦梦见这场事故。 2. a very frightening and unpleasant experiences or sth. that is very difficult to deal with 可怕的经历,噩梦,难以处理的事 [补] nightmarish [adj.] 噩梦般的,可怕的,不愉快的,Stumbling in the darkness ,they made their way to the city gates ,then out and down to the harbor.,stumble:[v.] 1.to miss one's step and almost fall 绊脚 eg : The old man stumbled and fell . 2. to make mistakes as one speaks ,play music,etc.(不顺畅地)说,演奏eg :He stumbled briefly over an unfamiliar word but then continued. 3. to move or walk unsteadily 蹒跚而行,跌跌撞撞地走 eg: He was drunk and stumbled up the stairs [补] stumble across on/upon sb/sth 意外发现,偶然碰见 eg : Mary stumbled across the book she needed in the liabrary.stumble into 无意间涉足某事 eg :She stumbled into acting after graduation,,,make one's way to/towards sth. 去,前往,前进 eg :Will you be able to make your own way to the railway station?[补] make way (for sb/sth) 让···通过,给···让路,让出位置,They boarded boats and got away ,living to tell the tale of their city's destruction.,get away(from sb/sp ) : to escape sb or a place 摆脱(某人),逃离(某地),,,Others preffered to remain within the city ,huddling inside the temples ,or in the public baths or in the cellars of their homes .,huddle:1.[v.] to hole one's arms and legs close to one's body 蜷缩,缩成一团 eg :She huddled under a blanket on the bed. 2. to gather closely together挤在一起 eg :They huddled together for warmth. 3. [n.] a small group of people ,objects or building thatare closely together 挤在一起的人(或物品,建筑)eg: People stood around in huddles before the gathering[补] huddled [adj.]蜷缩着的,挤成一团的,,,in store (for sb ) 等待着(某人),即将发生某事(在某人身上)eg: They don'y know what life holds in store for them.他们不知道等待他们的将会是什么样的生活,In the forum the tall columns toppled.The entire city seemed to shake in the grip of a giant fist.,column :[n.] 1. a tall ,solid,upright ,usu.round and made of stone.柱,圆形石柱2.one of the vertical sections into which the printed page of a book,newspaper, etc. is divided(书,报纸印刷页上的)栏 eg: a column of a text 一栏正文3.a part of a newspaper or magzine which appears regularly and deals witha certain subject or is witten by a certain writer (报刊的)专栏,栏目 [补] columnist [n.] 专栏作家,这句话使用了明喻(simile)的修辞手法, 将整个城市的晃动比喻成在一只巨手的手心中晃动。,topple: [v.] 1.to become or make sth unsteady and fall down(使)摇摇欲坠,倒塌 2.to make a person lose his position of power or authority打翻,推翻,颠覆 eg: They sought to topple the government .他们试图推翻政府,,,Thank you !,
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