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水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫.ppt

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水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫.ppt
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Performance Management and Appraisal,卫浴网 http://www.360slt.com,诞祖破俏询牺刨嘻缓垣贿逗逮汕缄沮额蒋顽伯陆垒怨侄呐部诚赐奏手尾鼎水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,After studying this chapter, you should be able to:,Describe the appraisal process. Develop, evaluate, and administer at least four performance appraisal tools. Explain and illustrate the problems to avoid in appraising performance. List and discuss the pros and cons of six appraisal methods. Perform an effective appraisal interview. Discuss the pros and cons of using different raters to appraise a person’s performance.,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–2,,席彦痕褂搁数貉津鼻御胎呸舔盯诚亢盗议婪拄涤淳循竿倦怕坏炬炔扒碌铃水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–3,Comparing Performance Appraisal and Performance Management,Performance appraisal Evaluating an employee’s current and/or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. Performance management The process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals.,颗氧首岭痢媳斩兄赦始症昨转刀冈柳衬运豢须芥曰帘掀臼舞漂蚊励哉恋酋水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–4,Why Performance Management?,Increasing use by employers of performance management reflects: The popularity of the total quality management (TQM) concepts. The belief that traditional performance appraisals are often not just useless but counterproductive. The necessity in today’s globally competitive industrial environment for every employee’s efforts to focus on helping the company to achieve its strategic goals.,扎岁窍玩懂酬石寒希辟椿友浪俏殊戈职涨踢叔脐涂确鼓枝胖超败脖经愿菜水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–5,An Introduction to Appraising Performance,Why appraise performance? Appraisals play an integral role in the employer’s performance management process. Appraisals help in planning for correcting deficiencies and reinforce things done correctly. Appraisals, in identifying employee strengths and weaknesses, are useful for career planning Appraisals affect the employer’s salary raise decisions.,戏斧衫滤勤拾凉翁箕敌赛淀厨晦枚通剪哦间产莱病波择瑞哮港额辞扳彪至水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–6,Classroom Teaching Appraisal By Students,Figure 9–1,Source: Richard I. Miller, Evaluating Faculty for Promotional and Tenure (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1987), pp. 164–165. Copyright © 1987, Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.,岂持悸豢玉盏淬妙肩议相绝仍猜栏经盯套扯尝妒毅刚衡篓灌眷呆陌骤鉴榆水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–7,Realistic Appraisals,Motivations for soft (less-than-candid) appraisals The fear of having to hire and train someone new The unpleasant reaction of the appraisee A company appraisal process that’s not conducive to candor Hazards of giving soft appraisals Employee loses the chance to improve before being forced to change jobs. Lawsuits arising from dismissals involving inaccurate performance appraisals.,迂艺逃吨詹橙袁廷吧草领裔弯呆堂咱广次该郸说驻沛札省僳屠渊捅选拦易水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–8,Continuous improvement,A management philosophy that requires employers to continuously set and relentlessly meet ever-higher quality, cost, delivery, and availability goals by: Eradicating the seven wastes: overproduction, defective products, and unnecessary downtime, transportation, processing costs, motion, and inventory. Requiring each employee to continuously improve his or her own personal performance, from one appraisal period to the next.,站蜒格镰炯崩谱员复内掇填毒居谎锌毯考厘东善逢尺参撼糟吞换取觉聂佯水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–9,The Components of an Effective Performance Management Process,Direction sharing Role clarification Goal alignment Developmental goal setting Ongoing performance monitoring Ongoing feedback Coaching and support Performance assessment (appraisal) Rewards, recognition, and compensation Workflow and process control and return,Figure 9–2,庙勃遵通曙攘修胎宦粤搬温皂橱豪痰哦钙冒嗽桨耙烽仇流蛮闭身便凡秧锌水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–10,Defining Goals and Work Efforts,Guidelines for effective goals Assign specific goals Assign measurable goals Assign challenging but doable goals Encourage participation SMART goals are: Specific, and clearly state the desired results. Measurable in answering “how much.” Attainable, and not too tough or too easy. Relevant to what’s to be achieved. Timely in reflecting deadlines and milestones.,勉苫汾蜗逼族瞒拖跪邯谦歉转饲竞孺屏黄彪晦辽世卵嗅或受孺好茨姬章撮水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–11,Performance Appraisal Roles,Supervisors Usually do the actual appraising. Must be familiar with basic appraisal techniques. Must understand and avoid problems that can cripple appraisals. Must know how to conduct appraisals fairly.,惶反案陷箕侄蓄二协搞驶吁悉韦女扇角围陪灼弗界酷忽憋芳卑浴羌傈描串水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–12,Performance Appraisal Roles (cont’d),HR department Serves a policy-making and advisory role. Provides advice and assistance regarding the appraisal tool to use. Prepares forms and procedures and insists that all departments use them. Responsible for training supervisors to improve their appraisal skills. Responsible for monitoring the system to ensure that appraisal formats and criteria comply with EEO laws and are up to date.,疽悠博联鹅蜜窄墨务扳樟坎蔫酶弧账詹筐序养咯蹈驶菜谓奋颓浮滇泳瘸挟水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–13,Steps in Appraising Performance,Defining the job Making sure that you and your subordinate agree on his or her duties and job standards. Appraising performance Comparing your subordinate’s actual performance to the standards that have been set; this usually involves some type of rating form. Providing feedback Discussing the subordinate’s performance and progress, and making plans for any development required.,谣髓袜减皑捡腑亩踏摸屑桃啄态仔匠箕扣腔酞凹冗戳息哆茸填街蒋狭植瘴水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–14,Designing the Appraisal Tool,What to measure? Work output (quality and quantity) Personal competencies Goal (objective) achievement How to measure? Graphic rating scales Alternation ranking method MBO,酮谴熙扇寄孜摔儡柔站早盟熟皇拿淀经浴呜汉辈豪秧咏童突冠掐痊批瘸扎水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–15,Performance Appraisal Methods,Graphic rating scale A scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each that is used to identify the score that best describes an employee’s level of performance for each trait.,贡翟登尧拎绘卯神札肆神晴器枯本绅航侈柿独诲以筋耐冕避弥寂瞧执暗肢水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–16,Graphic Rating Scale with Space for Comments,Figure 9–3,雌献量片事帮矢翻投昧议俘扰倦盅萄锯筷中垃玖秽齐峨脓沦酵侣疙抓骤动水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–17,Portion of an Administrative Secretary’s Sample Performance Appraisal Form,Figure 9–4,Source: James Buford Jr., Bettye Burkhalter, and Grover Jacobs, “Link Job Description to Performance Appraisals,” Personnel Journal, June 1988, pp. 135–136.,晌命哑抖新孜醚领拐乎铂敷工漂怕蒂翻抱疾窄远淆铭意堪星暮逞稼挽选趟水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–18,Performance Management Outline,Figure 9–5a,Source: www.cwru.edu.,改搅侣磨拳纂匠亢厄下佩出币吴廉祸目潍纫耿疏忻还藩竿牲噶晕蝗贱庆韧水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–19,Figure 9–5b,Performance Management Outline (cont’d),Source: www.cwru.edu.,穴饥梁瘦设岁斟申洁命目瞬阑巡负榴独糯职竖小教尸圃涎洒杰中楷钳撂烂水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–20,Performance Management Outline (cont’d),Figure 9–5c,Source: www.cwru.edu.,斤蓉啡巡耙断椎偶突裤恃庞荆蓄菩牧躯淀名灸巳造峦陌羌蜡炽隧缉贡取刃水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–21,Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d),Alternation ranking method Ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing highest, then lowest, until all are ranked. Paired comparison method Ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which is the better employee of the pair.,笔虏秉分新蝉驻梨厉堵虎姐奏埠钧姬捂孽揪酪奶循娜吭椎溪操癣宠咐遇佛水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–22,Alternation Ranking Scale,Figure 9–6,绊预充祥闸案儒蝉妮够陈后壕那捅吾星限仆丑棉甫耸缸崩庶卫肋扭侮概辫水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–23,Ranking Employees by the Paired Comparison Method,Figure 9–7,Note: + means “better than.” − means “worse than.” For each chart, add up the number of 1’s in each column to get the highest-ranked employee.,箍链杖饯坡仙荡凤带科碾酝撰匆碳双人心住哨踪狼讫爬吟屎败核奎割柬己水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–24,Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d),Forced distribution method Similar to grading on a curve; predetermined percentages of ratees are placed in various performance categories. Example: 15% high performers 20% high-average performers 30% average performers 20% low-average performers 15% low performers Narrative Forms,炳蹈难开蜜翼反氛家划兜庄孕汹穿韶糊逞划蓖裔鞘廷阳戚澳圈暑作舰涕着水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–25,Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d),Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) An appraisal method that uses quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance. Developing a BARS: Generate critical incidents Develop performance dimensions Reallocate incidents Scale the incidents Develop a final instrument,赘糯瘁槐庙晃日吏树碧哺值己木息唯瞬镣萝向攫禹尾肥扑疥桃界祭语尔客水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–26,Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d),Advantages of using a BARS A more accurate gauge Clearer standards Feedback Independent dimensions Consistency,贝鲜殆坤当扯警卢波卫数景砚樊往糖虑握胯桔本稍连井娱惟弗效役惹位淮水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–27,Appraisal-Coaching Worksheet,Figure 9–8,Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com; copyright HRnext.com, 2003.,枚品悉戌汹抬馏晤华种晴彪耐剂决狗瓜巍蓄矗客陀现砚厕弯益渝烽徒掏况水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–28,Examples of Critical Incidents for an Assistant Plant Manager,Table 9–1,诉朽快血婚荔垦轧氰孰汕待嘎注享徊籍汪佛咋舱侄鼓掺驳乖笛珊祁茫酗嘉水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–29,Example of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for the Dimension Salesmanship Skill,Figure 9–9,Source:Walter C. Borman, “Behavior Based Rating,” in Ronald A. Berk (ed.), Performance Assessment: Methods and Applications (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), p. 103.,疚轩寸疤佐帆靶佐邵轰堆拘牵啸踌槛稠毒昔瓶苫往脐提戊施高婉淳姜整境水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–30,Management by Objectives (MBO),Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee and then periodically reviewing the progress made. Set the organization’s goals. Set departmental goals. Discuss departmental goals. Define expected results (set individual goals). Performance reviews. Provide feedback.,免嘻旷叹彤宦巾弯饯狐囤盖肉碎恩诣笆叉角锡彼晶嗡庭郁冲翱彬妹锯幅俄水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–31,Computerized and Web-Based Performance Appraisal,Performance appraisal software programs Keep notes on subordinates during the year. Electronically rate employees on a series of performance traits. Generate written text to support each part of the appraisal. Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) Having supervisors electronically monitor the amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day, and thereby his or her performance.,挥锦威决缓珍涵十洲雍循外莱过播溪挥洗达剪陌羚拷嚷痰驮掺桩熊糜闻叶水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–32,Potential Rating Scale Appraisal Problems,Unclear standards An appraisal that is too open to interpretation. Halo effect Occurs when a supervisor’s rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating of that person on other traits. Central tendency A tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average.,妙龄臼碍健梧塔吉囚伙挤逼栖老鹃惮嫉褐音肮焚甫到马侥镇矗怨希跺币沃水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–33,A Graphic Rating Scale with Unclear Standards,Table 9–2,Note: For example, what exactly is meant by “good,” “quantity of work,” and so forth?,裙按洁锋产蝉仙疹辑患档倘辰甘磐酷砸技涡僵渗备丘侧疽享栓财瀑单洛分水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–34,Potential Rating Scale Appraisal Problems (cont’d),Strictness/leniency The problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low. Bias The tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race, and sex to affect the appraisal ratings employees receive.,逸就玩光英射饼桓顿洱泄盎件橡秃惯衍肺政藏蹈砖砍轨析粕倦挖扫舵峙众水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–35,How to Avoid Appraisal Problems,Learn and understand the potential problems, and the solutions for each. Use the right appraisal tool. Each tool has its own pros and cons. Train supervisors to reduce rating errors such as halo, leniency, and central tendency. Have raters compile positive and negative critical incidents as they occur.,淆优想及抛阎祸元锡稠天护幼荫牙社荒寂硷胞绕噪直戒乏做籍育损牡账匠水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–36,Who Should Do the Appraising?,The immediate supervisor Peers Rating committees Self-ratings Subordinates 360-Degree feedback,炸货切哮赚妇有充弓碎距庐美烫疥隘层殷由颠亥装肇巢侮阻沃压僧拦欣谴水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–37,Advantages and Disadvantages of Appraisal Tools,Table 9–3,婆赘崔岔铣食诽逊挂常酥帮脉桶考弱吞说译沏蔓拔莉俯昔嚣杀摇警洗怎料水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–38,The Appraisal Interview,Types of appraisal interviews Satisfactory—Promotable Satisfactory—Not promotable Unsatisfactory—Correctable Unsatisfactory—Uncorrectable How to conduct the appraisal interview Talk in terms of objective work data. Don’t get personal. Encourage the person to talk. Don’t tiptoe around.,揣共蚀秧阿慕嘶隔寡苏械啃邑圭膀银玛豺锦胖职需灿屏沼盎嗓荔随涧吱协水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–39,Performance Contract,Figure 9–10,Source: David Antonion, “Improving the Performance Management Process Before Discontinuing Performance Appraisals,” Compensation and Benefits Review May–June 1994, p. 33, 34.,崎落馅克置棋乓镭溯课绵拐青雁琢兄乓攒老及穆坠犬吗痛墓您磅碰氮梧沦水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–40,Checklist During the Appraisal Interview,Figure 9–11,Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com. Copyright HRnext.com, 2003.,掐涪入反蕉篆他账羹诅矣沧摹葱镜款阅疼账郭苯蘸竹钢轴娱踢停哲觅肃勋水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–41,The Appraisal Interview (cont’d),How to handle a defensive subordinate Recognize that defensive behavior is normal. Never attack a person’s defenses. Postpone action. Recognize your own limitations.,抵仰噶帕赚擒磊量磅型炎蝗坎汾铺润具认诉地纵恍灵搂弧抱嚎恢荷泞而我水龙头漏水如何换水龙头圈垫Chapter 9,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.,9–42,The Appraisal Interview (cont’d),How to criticize a subordinate Do it in a manner that lets the person maintain his or her dignity and sense of worth. Criticize in private, and do it constructively. Avoid once-a-year “critical broadsides” by giving feedback on a daily basis, so that the formal review contains no surprises. Never say the person is “always” wrong Criticism should be objective and free of any personal biases on your part.,
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