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    1、2011 11 笔译实务 英译汉第一篇Study Finds Hope in Saving Saltwater Fish 研究发现希望拯救盐水鱼Can we have our fish and eat it too? An unusual collaboration of marine ecologists and fisheries management scientists says the answer may be yes. 我们可以吃鱼好吗?一个不寻常的合作海洋生态学家和渔业管理科学家称,答案可能是是的。In a research paper in Fridays issue of

    2、the journal Science, the two groups, long at odds with each other, offer a global assessment of the worlds saltwater fish and their environments. 在一篇研究论文在星期五出版的科学杂志上的两个组,长别扭,互相提供一个全球评估世界的盐水鱼类和它们的环境。Their conclusions are at once gloomy overfishing continues to threaten many species and upbeat: a comb

    3、ination of steps can turn things around. But because antagonism between ecologists and fisheries management experts has been intense, many familiar with the study say the most important factor is that it was done at all. 他们的结论是在阴暗的- - - - - -一旦过度捕捞继续威胁许多物种 乐观:结合步骤可以把身边的事物。但由于对立和渔业生态学家管理专家一直强烈,许多熟悉这项

    4、研究说最重要的因素是,它被做。They say they hope the study will inspire similar collaborations between scientists whose focus is safely exploiting specific natural resources and those interested mainly in conserving them. 他们说他们希望这份研究能够激发类似的合作的焦点是科学家之间具体的安全开采自然资源和保护他们感兴趣的主要是在。“We need to merge those two communities

    5、,” said Steve Murawski, chief fisheries scientist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “This paper starts to bridge that gap.” “我们需要合并这两个社区”Murawski 史蒂夫说, 首席渔业科学家,因为美国国家海洋和大气管理局。本文开始桥的差距。”The collaboration began in 2006 when Boris Worm, a marine ecologist at Dalhousie University

    6、in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and other scientists made an alarming prediction: if current trends continue, by 2048 overfishing will have destroyed most commercially important populations of saltwater fish. Ecologists applauded the work. But among fisheries management scientists, reactions ranged from sk

    7、epticism to fury over what many called an alarmist report. 的合作始于 2006 年,当鲍里斯虫 ,海洋生态学家舍戴尔豪士大学驶往哈里法克斯,新斯科舍,和其他科学家们有了一个惊人的预测: 如果目前趋势继续下去,到 2048 年几乎摧毁了过度捕捞将盐水的重要商业价值的鱼类数量。生态学家鼓掌的工作。但在渔业管理科学家的反应各不相同,有的论者在许多叫做忿怒发布危言耸听的报告。Among the most prominent critics was Ray Hilborn, a professor of aquatic and fishery

    8、sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle. Yet the disagreement did not play out in typical scientific fashion with, as Dr. Hilborn put it, “researchers firing critical papers back and forth. ” Instead, he and Dr. Worm found themselves debating the issue on National Public Radio. 其中最著名评论家们

    9、 Hilborn 是雷教授、水产渔业科学在西雅图华盛顿大学的。但分歧没有发挥出的典型的科学时尚,Hilborn 博士说:“研究人员关键论文射击来回摆动。相反地,他发现自己和博士虫辩论这事在美国国家公共电台。“We started talking and found more common ground than we had expected,” Dr. Worm said. Dr. Hilborn recalled thinking that Dr. Worm “actually seemed like a reasonable person.” “我们开始说话了,发现更多的共同点比我们预计

    10、的还要早,“虫博士说。博士 Hilborn 召回认为博士蠕虫”似乎真的很像一个讲道理的人。”The two decided to work together on the issue. They sought and received financing and began organizing workshops at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, an organization sponsored by the National Science Foundation and based at the U

    11、niversity of California, Santa Barbara. 这两个决定一起工作有关问题。他们寻求和接受资金和开始在国家中心工作坊生态分析和合成,该组织由美国国家科学基金会和建立在加州大学圣芭芭拉。At first, Dr. Hilborn said in an interview, “the fisheries management people would go to lunch and the marine ecologists would go to lunch” separately. But soon they were collecting and sharin

    12、g data and recruiting more colleagues to analyze it. 首先,Hilborn 博士在接受一次采访时表示,“渔业管理人们会去吃午饭,海洋生态学家就去吃午饭呢,”另行规定。但很快,他们收集和共享数据和招募更多的同事来分析它。Dr. Hilborn said he and Dr. Worm now understood why the ecologists and the management scientists disagreed so sharply in the first place. For one thing, he said, as

    13、long as a fish species was sustaining itself, management scientists were relatively untroubled if its abundance fell to only 40 or 50 percent of what it might otherwise be. Yet to ecologists, he said, such a stock would be characterized as “depleted” “a very pejorative word.” 博士说,他和 Hilborn 博士虫现在终于明

    14、白了为什么生态学者和科学家们没有达成一致,超出了管理放在第一位。首先,他说, 只要一种鱼仍保持着自己,科学家便管理其丰度相对下降到只有 40 - 50%的它可能。然而,生态学家,他说,这样的股票会被称作是 “贫”“一个非常贬义字。”In the end, the scientists concluded that 63 percent of saltwater fish stocks had been depleted “below what we think of as a target range,” Dr. Worm said. 最后,研究人员得出结论,63%盐水的鱼类已经枯竭”下我们认

    15、为靶区,“虫博士说。But they also agreed that fish in well-managed areas, including the United States, were recovering or doing well. They wrote that management techniques like closing some areas to fishing, restricting the use of certain fishing gear or allocating shares of the catch to individual fishermen,

    16、 communities or others could allow depleted fish stocks to rebound. 但是他们也认为鱼在管理领域,包括美国, 还未恢复或做得很好。他们写到,管理技术,如关闭某些地区钓鱼,限制使用某些渔具或分配的股票渔民捕捉个体、社区或其他人可以让鱼类资源的枯竭抢到篮板。The researchers suggest that a calculation of how many fish in a given species can be caught in a given region without threatening the stock

    17、, called maximum sustainable yield, is less useful than a standard that takes into account the health of the wider marine environment. They also agreed that solutions did not lie only in management techniques but also in the political will to apply them, even if they initially caused economic disrup

    18、tion. 研究者建议计算多少鱼在一个给定物种可以被抓住在某一区域发生不威胁到股票,称为最大持续产量, 是比人们想象的那么有用。一个标准,考虑到健康更广泛的海洋环境。他们也同意解决没有说谎,只有在管理技术,而且在政治意愿运用他们, 即使他们起初所造成的经济崩溃。Because the new paper represents the views of both camps, its conclusions are likely to be influential, Dr. Murawski said. “Getting a strong statement from those communi

    19、ties that there is more to agree on than to disagree on builds confidence,” 因为新篇论文所代表的两个阵营的观点,其结论可能会影响,Murawski博士说。“要找一份强硬的声明书, 从这些社区更多的同意不同意建立比信心。”第二篇As I mentioned last week, Ive recently returned from Australia. While I was there, I visited a eucalyptus forest that, in February, was the scene of

    20、an appalling wildfire. Perhaps naively, I had expected to find that many trees had been killed. They hadnt. They had blackened bark, but were otherwise looking rather well, many of them wreathed in new young leaves. This prompted me to consider fire and the role it plays as a force of nature. 像我提到的,

    21、上个星期,我最近从澳大利亚回来。当我在那里, 我参观了一个桉树森林,在每年的二月, 发生了令人震惊的大火。或许是天真地以为,我一直希望能发现许多树被杀害。他们没有。他们有烧焦的树皮,但在其他方面看起来很好,他们中的许多人绽放着新的年轻的叶子。这促使我思考及角色扮演的火作为自然之力。Fossil charcoals tell us that wildfires have been part of life on Earth for as long as there have been plants on land. Thats more than 400 million years of fir

    22、e. Fire was here long before arriviste plants like grasses; it pre-dated the first flowers. And without wanting to get mystical about it, fire is, in many respects, a kind of animal, albeit an ethereal one. Like any animal, it consumes oxygen. Like a sheep or a slug, it eats plants. But unlike a nor

    23、mal animal, its a shape-shifter. Sometimes, it merely nibbles a few leaves; sometimes it kills grown trees. Sometimes it is more deadly and destructive than a swarm of locusts. 一股炭烤化石告诉我们,大火已经成为生活的一部分在地球上只要有植物在陆地上。这已经超过 4 亿年的火灾。火在这里多久 arriviste 的植物,如草,它 pre-dated 第一花。没有想要变得神秘,火,在很多方面,动物的一种,虽然一种永恒。就像

    24、任何动物, 它消耗的氧气。像羊或一只蛞蝓, 它吃的植物。但与正常的动物,这是一个 shape-shifter。有时,它只是啃了几片叶子,有时它会杀死种植树木。有时它更致命的和具有一大群蝗虫。The shape-shifting nature of fire makes it hard to study, for it is not a single entity. Some fires are infernally hot; others, relatively cool. Some stay at ground level; others climb trees. Moreover, fir

    25、e is much more likely to appear in some parts of the world than in others. Satellite images of the Earth show that wildfires are rare in, say, northern Europe, and common in parts of central Africa and Australia. (These days many wildfires are started by humans, either on purpose or by accident. But

    26、 long before our ancestors began to throw torches or cigarette butts, fires were started by lightning strikes, or by sparks given off when rocks rub together in an avalanche.) 火的变形性质使得它得费很大劲来学习,因为它不是一个单一的实体。有些火焰是康华热,其他人则较为凉爽。一些呆在地面水平;其他人爬上树。此外,火是更有可能出现在世界的某些地方比其他人。地球的卫星图像显示,森林大火是罕见的, 比如说,在欧洲北部,和普通中部

    27、的非洲和澳大利亚。(这些日子以来, 很多森林大火是由人启动, 要么故意还是偶然。但是很久以前我们的祖先开始扔火把以及烟头,大火雷击,或火花放出岩石交往时在雪崩中。)Once a fire gets started, many factors contribute to how it will behave. The weather obviously has a huge effect: winds can fan flames, rains can quench them. The lie of the land matters, too: fire runs uphill more rea

    28、dily than it goes down. But another crucial factor is what type of plants the fire has to eat. 一旦真的发生火灾中开始,许多因素的影响, 它会如何表现。天气很明显有一个巨大的效果:风能风扇火焰, 雨也无法让他们。谎言的土地问题,太:火分比上坡更容易下去。但另一个重要的因素是什么类型的植物中,火也吃。Its common knowledge that plants regularly exposed to fire tend to have features that help them cope wi

    29、th it such as thick bark, or seeds that only grow after being exposed to intense heat or smoke. But what is less often remarked on is that the plants themselves affect the nature and severity of fire. 大家都知道,植物经常暴露于火灾往往具有功能,帮助他们应付例如厚树皮,或者种子后,才会成长被暴露在高温或抽烟。但是不经常说的是, 植物本身的性质和影响程度的火。The shape-shifting n

    30、ature of fire makes it hard to study, for it is not a single entity. Some fires are infernally hot; others, relatively cool. Some stay at ground level; others climb trees. Moreover, fire is much more likely to appear in some parts of the world than in others. Satellite images of the Earth show that

    31、wildfires are rare in, say, northern Europe, and common in parts of central Africa and Australia. (These days many wildfires are started by humans, either on purpose or by accident. But long before our ancestors began to throw torches or cigarette butts, fires were started by lightning strikes, or b

    32、y sparks given off when rocks rub together in an avalanche.) 火的变形性质使得它得费很大劲来学习,因为它不是一个单一的实体。有些火焰是康华热,其他人则较为凉爽。一些呆在地面水平;其他人爬上树。此外,火是更有可能出现在世界的某些地方比其他人。地球的卫星图像显示,森林大火是罕见的, 比如说,在欧洲北部,和普通中部的非洲和澳大利亚。(这些日子以来, 很多森林大火是由人启动, 要么故意还是偶然。但是很久以前我们的祖先开始扔火把以及烟头,大火雷击,或火花放出岩石交往时在雪崩中。)Once a fire gets started, many fa

    33、ctors contribute to how it will behave. The weather obviously has a huge effect: winds can fan flames, rains can quench them. The lie of the land matters, too: fire runs uphill more readily than it goes down. But another crucial factor is what type of plants the fire has to eat. 一旦真的发生火灾中开始,许多因素的影响,

    34、 它会如何表现。天气很明显有一个巨大的效果:风能风扇火焰, 雨也无法让他们。谎言的土地问题,太:火分比上坡更容易下去。但另一个重要的因素是什么类型的植物中,火也吃。Its common knowledge that plants regularly exposed to fire tend to have features that help them cope with it such as thick bark, or seeds that only grow after being exposed to intense heat or smoke. 大家都知道,植物经常暴露于火灾往往具有功能,帮助他们应付例如厚树皮,或者种子后,才会成长被暴露在高温或抽烟。

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