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自考英语词汇学 第二章课件.ppt

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自考英语词汇学 第二章课件.ppt
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英语词汇学 Chapter 2 The development of the English Vocabulary 英语词汇的发展,2.1 The Indo-European language family 印欧语系,1 - It is assumed that the world has approximately 3, 000 (some put it 5, 000 ) languages, which can be grouped into roughly 300 language families on the basis of similarities in their basic word stock and grammar. 据估计,世界上约有 3 000 多种(有人认为 5 000 种 )语言,这些语言可以根据他们的基本词汇和语法的相似性大致划分为 300 个谱系。,2 - The Indo-European is one of them. It is made up of most of the languages of Europe, the Near East, and India. 印欧语就是其中之一。该语系包括欧洲的大多数语言、近东诸语言和古梵语。,3 - They accordingly fall into eight principal groups, which can be grouped into an Eastern set: Balto-Slavic , Indo-Iranian , Armenian and Albanian ; a Western set: Celtic, Italic, Hellenic, Germanic. 这些语族相应地分为 8 大语族,这 8 大语族又可分为东部诸语族。东部诸语族有波罗的海-斯拉夫语族,印 度-伊朗语族,亚美尼亚-阿尔巴尼亚语族; 西部诸语族有凯尔特语族,意大利语族,希腊语族,日耳曼语族。,4 - In the Eastern set, Armenian and Albanian are each the only modern language respectively. The Balto-Slavic comprises such modern languages as Prussian, Lithuanian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, Slovenian and Russian. 在东部诸语族中,亚美尼亚-阿尔巴尼亚语族都只留下今天的亚美尼亚语和阿尔巴尼亚语。波罗的海-斯拉夫语族包括普鲁士语,立陶宛语,波兰语,捷克语,保加利亚语,斯洛文尼亚语和俄语等。,5 - In the Indo-Iranian we have Persian. Bengali, Hindi, Romany, the last three of which are derived from the dead language Sanskrit. 印度-伊朗语族语族波斯语,孟加拉国语,印地语,吉普赛语,后 3 门语言来源于已经消亡的古梵语。,6 - In the Western set, Greek is the modern language derived from Hellenic. 在西部诸语族中,现代希腊语来源于古希腊语族。,7 - The Germanic family consists of the four Northern European Languages: Norwegian, Icelandic, Danish and Swedish, which are generally known as Scandinavian languages. Then there is German, Dutch, Flemish and English. 日耳曼语族包括 4 门北欧语言:挪威语,冰岛语,丹麦语和瑞典语,这 4 门语言统称为斯堪的纳维亚 语。其次是德语,荷兰语,佛兰芒语和英语。,2.2 A Historical Overview of the English Vocabulary 英语词汇历史概述,2.2.1 Old English (450-1150) 古英语 Anglo-Saxon as Old English. Old English has a vocabulary of about 50, 000 to 60, 000 words. It was a highly inflected language just like moderm German. 盎格鲁-撒克逊语被称为古英语。古英语约有 50000 至 60000 词汇。而且也和现代德语一样是一门典型的屈折语。,2.2.2 Middle English (1150-1500) -中古英语 Although there were borrowings from Latin, the influence on English was mainly Germanic.虽然英语也从拉丁语中借词,但影响英语的主要还是日耳曼语。 Between 1250 and 1500 about 9000 words of French origin poured into English. Seventy-five percent of them are still in use today.从 1250 年到 1500 年的 250 年间,大约有 9000 个法语词汇进入到英语中,其中 75%仍在使用。 If we say that Old English was a language of full endings. Middle English was one of leveled endings. 如果说古英语是全词尾的话,那么中古英语的词尾已去了一半,2.2.3 Modern English (1500-up to now)现代英语Modern English began with the establishment of printing in England. 现代英语开始于印刷术传入英国。 Early (1500-1700) and Late (1700-up to the present) Modern English 现在英语分为早期现代英语( 1500 至 1700 年)和晚期现代英语( 1700 -至今),In the early period of Modern English, Europe saw a new upsurge of learning ancient Greek and Roman classics. This is known in history as the Renaissance. 在早期现代英语阶段,欧洲掀起了学习希腊和罗马的古典著作的运动。这场运动史称文艺复兴。 Latin and Greek were recognized as the languages of the Western world’s great literary heritage and of great scholarship. 当时拉丁语和希腊语被认为是西方世界灿烂文学遗产的语言,是学术语言,In fact, more than twenty-five percent of modern English words come almost directly from classical languages. 事实上,现代英语词汇中有 25%以上几乎是直接从古典语言中直接介入的(WBD)。In modern English, word endings were mostly lost with just a few exceptions. It can be concluded that English has evolved from a synthetic language (Old English) to the present analytic language.在现代英语中,除了少数几个词之外,词尾几乎都消失了。可以这样说,英语已从古英语的综合型语言发展成了现在的分析型语言 。,2.3 Growth of Present-day Enlish Vocabulary现代英语词汇量的增长,Three main sources of new words: the rapid development of modern science and technology 45 % ) social, economic and political changes 11 % ) the influence ( ; ( ; of other cultures and languages( 24 % ). 新词的产生有 3 大来源:现代科学和技术的迅猛发展( 45 % ) ;社会,经济和政治的变化( 11 % ) ; 其它文化和语言的影响( 24 % )。,2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development词汇发展的模式,Modern English vocabulary develops through three channels: creation, semantic change, borrowing. 现代英语词汇的发展主要通过三个渠道:创词、旧词新义和借词。 Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. In modern times, this is the most important way of vocabulary expansion. 创词是指通过使用现有的材料,即词根,词缀和其它形式创造新词。在现代时期,这是词汇扩展的最重要的形式。,Semantic change means an old form which takes on a new meaning to meet the new need. This does not increase the number of word forms but create many more new usages of the words, thus enriching the vocabulary. 旧词新义是指赋予旧词新的含义以满足新的需要。这一方式不增加词得数量,但却创造了词的许多新用法,以丰富词汇。,Borrowing has played a vital role in the development of vocabulary, particularly in earlier times. Borrowed words constitute merely six to seven percent of all new words.借词在词汇的发展中起了重要的作用,尤其是在早期。借词在所有新词中,借词只占 6%-7%。 In earlier stages of English, French, Greek and Scandinavian were the major contributors. 英语在早期阶段主要是向法语、拉丁语、希腊语和斯堪的纳维亚语借词。,Reviving archaic or obsolete words(复活古词和废弃词) also contributes to the growth of English vocabulary though quite insignificant. 复活古词和废弃词对整个英语词汇来说虽然影响不大,但却是一种发展方式。,
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