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类型03 人力资源课件The Defined Level - Maturity Level 3.pdf

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    1、PeopleCapability Maturity ModelThe Defined Level Maturity Level 3Process Areas at the Defined Level focus on establishing an organizationalframework for developing the workforce. The organization identifies theknowledge, skills, and process abilities that underlie the workforcecompetencies needed to

    2、 perform its business activities. The organizationdevelops strategic plans for the workforce needed to accomplish current andfuture business objectives. Development opportunities are established forassisting individuals in improving their capability in these workforcecompetencies. Graduated career o

    3、pportunities are developed around growthin one or more workforce competencies. The workforce practicesimplemented at Level 2 are adjusted to motivate and support development inthe organizations workforce competencies. The process abilities defined foreach workforce competency are used for tailoring

    4、defined processes andestablishing roles that provide the next step in workgroup development. Aparticipatory culture is established that enables the most effective use of theorganizations talent for making decisions and executing work. The processareas at Maturity Level 3 include: Process areas Compe

    5、tency Analysis 245Workforce Planning 267Competency Development 291Career Development 307Competency-Based Practices 327Workgroup Development 347Participatory Culture 379Competency AnalysisA process area at Maturity Level 3: DefinedPeople Capability Maturity Model Version 2Copyright 2001 by Carnegie M

    6、ellon University 245Purpose The purpose of Competency Analysis is to identify the knowledge,skills, and process abilities required to perform the organizationsbusiness activities so that they may be developed and used as a basisfor workforce practices.Description Prahalad and Hamel Prahalad 90 descr

    7、ibe an organizations corecompetence as the combination of technology and production skills thatcreate its products and services and provide its competitive advantage inthe marketplace. Achieving and sustaining a core competence requiresassembling a workforce comprised of people with different types

    8、ofknowledge, skill, and abilities to follow processes. Each of these differentsets of knowledge, skills, and process abilities constitute a workforcecompetency. The range of workforce competencies needed by anorganization is determined by the range of business activities thatcollectively constitute

    9、or support the organizations core competencies.Competency Analysis begins by analyzing the organizations businessactivities to identify the workforce competencies required to performthem. These workforce competencies are each analyzed to identify theiressential knowledge, skills, and process abiliti

    10、es. Workforce competencydescriptions are periodically reassessed to ensure they remain current withthe actual knowledge, skills, and process abilities required by theorganizations business activities. The organization maintains a repositoryof these workforce competency descriptions. The work process

    11、es used bycapable individuals in each workforce competency are defined andupdated as necessary. Anticipated changes in products, services, processes,or technologies are analyzed to determine their implications for futureworkforce competency requirements.Competency information regarding an individual

    12、s capability in theworkforce competencies relevant to their work or career is collected andmaintained. From this competency information, resource profiles of theCompetency Analysis Level 3: Defined246 People Capability Maturity Model Version 2organizations level of capability in each of its workforc

    13、e competenciescan be determined. Competency information is updated as necessary tokeep it current.Workforce competency descriptions and information are used to guidestrategic workforce planning, support development of the organizationsworkforce competencies, and enable the tailoring of workforce act

    14、ivitiesacross the organization. Competency descriptions and information shouldbe used at the unit level in performing the workforce activities described inthe Staffing, Training and Development, Performance Management,Competency Development, Competency-Based Practices, and otherprocess areas. Indivi

    15、duals should have access to workforce competencydescriptions for planning their development and career activities.GoalsGoal 1 The workforce competencies required to perform the organizationsbusiness activities are defined and updated.Goal 2 The work processes used within each workforce competency ar

    16、eestablished and maintained.Goal 3 The organization tracks its capability in each of its workforcecompetencies.Goal 4 Competency Analysis practices are institutionalized to ensure they areperformed as defined organizational processes.Level 3: Defined Competency AnalysisPeople Capability Maturity Mod

    17、el Version 2 247Commitment to PerformCommitment 1 The organization establishes and maintains a documented policy forconducting its Competency Analysis activities.Issues typically addressed in the policy include:1. Workforce competency analyses serve the business objectives and statedvalues of the or

    18、ganization.2. The workforce competencies required to accomplish the organizationsbusiness objectives (including technical, managerial, and administrativework) are identified.3. A list of the workforce competencies on which to base workforce activitiesis maintained and revised, as necessary.4. Workfo

    19、rce competency analyses are conducted on a periodic and event-driven basis to maintain and update the workforce competency descriptions.5. A repository of defined workforce competency descriptions and competencyinformation is maintained.6. Appropriate Competency Analysis procedures are defined, docu

    20、mented, andused.The human resources function or other appropriate professionals shouldreview all Competency Analysis procedures to ensure they: Are consistent with relevant laws, regulations, and organizational policies Respect the rights and dignity of individuals and groupsCompetency Analysis proc

    21、edures are established and maintained for: documenting and maintaining workforce competency descriptions, determining changes in workforce competency descriptions, controlling changes or updates to workforce competency descriptions,Competency Analysis Level 3: Defined248 People Capability Maturity M

    22、odel Version 2 collecting and storing of competency information, and maintaining and using the workforce competency informationrepository, including who has access and for what purposes.Refer to Practices 6, 7, and 8 of this process area for practices regardingthe development and maintenance of the

    23、organizations workforcecompetency information repository.7. Competency Analysis practices and activities comply with relevant laws,regulations, and organizational policies.Commitment 2 An organizational role(s) is assigned responsibility for coordinatingCompetency Analysis activities across the orga

    24、nization.Examples of individuals who might be assigned responsibility forcoordinating workforce competency analysis activities include thefollowing: Members of the human resources function or other appropriate professionals Members of the training or development functions Organizational competency d

    25、efinition or competency management group Committee of representatives from ownership teams for each workforce competencyLevel 3: Defined Competency AnalysisPeople Capability Maturity Model Version 2 249Ability to PerformAbility 1 A responsible individual(s) coordinates the Competency Analysisactivit

    26、ies for defining, developing, and maintaining each workforcecompetency.Workforce competency analyses may involve individuals from numerousunits across the organization. The individuals who conduct the initialanalyses of a workforce competency may not be the same individualswho maintain the competenc

    27、y descriptions or coordinate development inthe competency over time. Examples of individuals or groups that may beinvolved in defining and maintaining a workforce competency include thefollowing: Human resources or other appropriate professionals An organizational competency definition or competency

    28、 management group Process engineering groups focused in areas of workforce competency Responsible individuals housed within a functional unit devoted to a specific workforce competency (e.g., a center of excellence) A group of experienced, capable individuals within the competency who form a compete

    29、ncy ownership teamAbility 2 Adequate resources are provided for performing CompetencyAnalysis activities.1. Documentation of the organizations business activities and processes aremade available for analysis.2. Strategic and operational business objectives are made available fordeveloping the strate

    30、gic workforce plan.Competency Analysis Level 3: Defined250 People Capability Maturity Model Version 23. Experienced individuals who have expertise in workforce competencyanalysis are made available.Examples of individuals who can contribute to workforce competencyanalysis include the following: Memb

    31、ers of the human resources function or other appropriate professionals Members of the training or development functions Members of quality or process improvement groups Managers Business strategists Instructional designers4. Resources for supporting Competency Analysis activities are madeavailable.E

    32、xamples of resources to support workforce competency analysis includethe following: Task analysis tools Position analysis questionnaires Skills analysis inventories Process analysis instruments Data collection and analysis tools Knowledge acquisition or knowledge engineering tools5. Funding to accom

    33、plish Competency Analysis activities is made available.6. Time, resources, and access to staff for analyzing workforce competenciesare made available.Ability 3 Individuals performing Competency Analysis activities develop theknowledge, skills, and process abilities needed to perform theirresponsibil

    34、ities.Level 3: Defined Competency AnalysisPeople Capability Maturity Model Version 2 2511. Individuals performing Competency Analysis activities receive preparationin relevant analysis methods and techniques needed to perform theirresponsibilities.2. Individuals who participate in Competency Analysi

    35、s activities are providedorientation to the purpose of and methods used in the Competency Analysisactivities.Examples of topics that might be included in the preparation of thoseinvolved in competency analysis techniques include the following: Workflow and task analysis Knowledge and skill analysis

    36、Behavioral analysis Knowledge engineering Process analysis and definitionAbility 4 The practices and procedures for performing Competency Analysisare defined and documented.1. Practices and procedures are defined and documented at the organizationalor unit levels, as appropriate.2. Guidelines for ta

    37、iloring the practices and procedures for use in differentcircumstances are documented and made available, as necessary.3. The individual(s) assigned responsibility for coordinating CompetencyAnalysis activities across the organization ensures that defined practices andprocedures are: maintained unde

    38、r version control, disseminated through appropriate media, interpreted appropriately for different situations, and updated through orderly methods.4. Experiences, lessons learned, measurement results, and improvementinformation derived from planning and performing Competency Analysispractices are ca

    39、ptured to support the future use and improvement of theorganizations practices.Competency Analysis Level 3: Defined252 People Capability Maturity Model Version 2Practices PerformedPractice 1 The workforce competencies required to perform the organizationsbusiness activities are identified.A competen

    40、cy is an underlying characteristic of an individual that iscausally related to effective and/or superior performance, as determinedby measurable, objective criteria, in a job or situation adapted fromSpencer 93, p. 9. This concept of a competency of an individual isdifferent from the concept of a co

    41、re competency of an organization, asformulated by Prahalad and Hamel Prahalad 90. The People CMMrefers to the concept of a competency at the individual level as aworkforce competency possessed by the individual. This is similar toAthey and Orths Athey 99 description of a competency as a set ofobserv

    42、able performance dimensions, including individual knowledge,skills, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as collective team, process, andorganizational capabilities, that are linked to high performance, andprovide the organization with sustainable competitive advantage.A workforce competency represents

    43、 the knowledge, skills, and processabilities needed within the workforce to perform the organizationsbusiness activities. A workforce competency can be stated at a veryabstract level, such as a need for a workforce competency in softwareengineering or technical writing. Workforce competencies can al

    44、so bedecomposed to more granular abilities, such as competencies indesigning avionics software, testing switching system software, orwriting user manuals and training materials for reservation systems.1. The business activities that implement the organizations mission andstrategy are identified.2. T

    45、he workforce competencies the organization must develop and maintain toperform these business activities are identified.Level 3: Defined Competency AnalysisPeople Capability Maturity Model Version 2 253Practice 2 Each of the organizations workforce competencies is analyzed toidentify the knowledge,

    46、skills, and process abilities that compose it.Competencies have often been treated as descriptions of effectivebehaviors performed as part of a job. Although these descriptionsprovided a starting point for discussing performance, they often did notinclude sufficient detail about the knowledge or spe

    47、cific skills an individualneeded to match the behavioral descriptions in practice. The PeopleCMM encourages analyzing the knowledge, skills, and process abilitiescomprising a workforce competency to the level of detail required fordiagnosing development needs and appropriate activities. Thus, aworkf

    48、orce competency should describe its constituent knowledge, skills,and process abilities to a level sufficient for guiding development activitiesthat enable capable performance of required job behaviors. Knowledge is the information and understanding that an individual must have to perform a task suc

    49、cessfully. Skills are the behaviors that an individual must be able to performin order to accomplish committed work. Skills may involvebehaviors that directly accomplish the task or that provide the support of, or coordination with, others involved in accomplishing tasks. Process abilities are the c

    50、apacity to perform individual skills in the specific sequencing or method used in the organization to coordinate activities among individuals or groups, and to adjust the performance of skills, as necessary, to maintain an orderly flow of work.1. A plan is developed for analyzing workforce competenc

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