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实用综合教程第二版3-unit2-电子教案.ppt

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实用综合教程第二版3-unit2-电子教案.ppt
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home,Objectives,In this unit, you will,— listen to a passage about naming children;— read an article about how to address people;— enlarge your vocabulary related to the use of titles;— get some tips about asking different types of questions;— learn about the possible influence of a name on a person;— read and write a letter.,Objectives,main,Listening and Speaking,Text A,Grammar Tips,Text B,Comprehensive Exercises,Practical Reading and Writing,Warm-up,1. How to address people in English When we talk directly to people, it is possible to address them in the following ways: ● by their given name; ● by a title followed by their surname; ● and by a title on its own.,Warm-up-BG1,Discussion,Background Information,,,Warm-up,When addressing people by their given names, we often use a shortened form of the name. For example, Timothy may be called Tim, or Jennifer may be called Jenny. More examples:,Warm-up- BG2,Background Information,,,Discussion,Warm-up,Christopher —,Chris,Edward —,Ed,Andrew —,Andy,Anthony —,Tony,Richard —,Dick,William —,Bill,James —,Jimmie,If you know the shortened form of your foreign friend, you may use it. Otherwise it is probably wiser to keep using the name a foreigner uses for himself or herself.,Another way of addressing people is to use “title + surname.” The most common titles are “Mr.”,“Mrs.” and “Miss.” In most cases “Mr.” is used for men, “Mrs.” for married women and “Miss” for unmarried women. They are used together with the surname and are placed in front of it, for example, Mr. Roland, Miss Webster. Nowadays the title “Ms.” is used for any woman (single or married).,Warm-up- BG3,Warm-up,Background Information,,,Discussion,Some professions can also function as titles, for example: Professor, Doctor, Nurse, and ranks in the armed forces like Captain. If people have such positions they should normally be addressed with these titles, unless of course the situation is informal and the relationship is close.,Warm-up- BG4,Warm-up,Background Information,,,Discussion,These professional titles can also be used on their own without the surname. So a patient, for instance, can call his doctor either Dr. Bennett or Doctor.,How to address people depends mainly on the relationship between the people, and also on the situation. We can divide situations into three broad types: ● formal relationship/situation ● informal situation/close relationship ● neutral relationship/situation The relationship between the type of situation and the way in which a person is addressed in English can be summarized as follows:,Warm-up –BG5,Warm-up,Background Information,,,Discussion,Warm-up- BG6,Background Information,,,Discussion,Warm-up,Apart from the very formal or informal situations, on the whole, it is probably safer to use the “title + surname”; if people prefer to be addressed by their given name, they will usually say so.,,Title + surname,,Given name or title+ surname,,Given name,Warm-up- BG7,Background Information,,Discussion,Warm-up,2. How to spell your Chinese name in English When you spell your Chinese name in English, your family name should be spelled as one word, andyour given name should be spelled as one word — no matter whether your given name consists of one Chinese character (汉字) or two.,姚明 —,Yao Ming,张艺谋 —,Zhang Yimou,For example,,Warm-up- BG8,Background Information,,Discussion,Warm-up,Sometimes, a Chinese family name has two Chinese characters, and such a family name should be spelled as one word.,司马光 —,Sima Guang,欧阳紫薇 —,Ouyang Ziwei,For example,,Warm-up- BG9,Background Information,,Discussion,Warm-up,The family name is put before the given name in Chinese, which is different from the English way of putting the given name first. To avoid confusion, we may spell a Chinese name in its original order but capitalize all letters in the family name. For example, on the name card of a person called 王佳佳, the name could be spelled as WANG Jiajia.,Question: Do you think there is a connection between a person’s name and his or her life? Why or why not?,The reasons may include:(1) One’s name will give some hints to the person about his or her life goals.(2) Some names have positive meanings which will give the owner confidence.(3) Chinese culture endows the names with rich meanings. The meanings may affect other people’s impression about the person with the name, so in the long run a name will influence a person’s life.(4) People sometimes make fun of those names that may have funny or negative associations.,Hints,Warm-up- Discussion1,Discussion,Background Information,,,Warm-up,— Yes,I think so.,A name is just a name. It has no connection with one’s life.For example, a person with the Chinese character for “rich” (富) in his name may be very poor in reality.,Hints,Warm-up- Discussion2,Discussion,Background Information,,,Warm-up,— No, I don’t think so.,,You will hear a recorded passage. After that you will hear five questions. Both the passage and the questions will be read twice. When you hear a question, you should completethe answer to it with a word or a short phrase (in no more than three words). The questions and incomplete answers are given for your reference.,1. What do Chinese people have in common with Americans in naming their children? Both the Chinese and Americans would when they name their children.,Listening1,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,I. Listening,Script,choose carefully,_____________,2. According to the speaker, how do Chinese people choose their children’s names? It seems to the speaker that the Chinese choose their children’s names because they do not know anybody that.3. How do people in the West choose names for their children? They usually choose names for their children precisely because they are the names of people they or .,Listening2,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,called,_____,know,____,respect,______,4. According to the speaker, how would the Americans usually name their first sons? The Americans often name first sons .5. Do the Americans pay particular attention to the meaning of names they choose for their children? No. The majority of them do not know or the meanings of the names.,Listening3,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,after their fathers,______________,Speaking,Listening and Speaking,Tell your partner a story related to names. You may tell an interesting story of your own choice, or you may choose a topic from the following list. Decide whose story might bemore interesting to other students, and get ready to share your story with the class.,II. Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,1. What’s the meaning of your Chinese name?2. Do you think that your name expresses your personality or talent?3. In your opinion, why did your parents give such a name to you?4. Do you know an interesting story about names?,Listening Script1,,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,Just like the Chinese people, we Americans choose carefully when we name our children. But there are certainly differences between your custom and ours in naming the children. It seems you choose your children’s names because you do not know anybody called that. In the West, we usually choose names for our children precisely because they are the names ofpeople we know or respect. Americans take it further, often naming first sons after their fathers. For Catholics it must be the name of a saint.,Listening Script2,,Listening and Speaking,Speaking,Listening,,,Furthermore, you consider carefully the meaning of the names you choose for your children. The majority of us do not know or concern ourselves about the meanings of the names. We do not usually choose them on that basis.,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions1,Text Study,according to,,,Text A,根据,a word that is used before sb.’s name 头衔,称号,the way of life of a particular people; people’s moral and religious beliefs 文化;教养,culture n.,title n.,consider vt.,think carefully about sth.; have a particular opinion about sth. 考虑;认为,impression n.,an idea, feeling, or opinion about sth. or sb. 印象,感觉,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions2,Text Study,attractive adj.,,,Text A,beautiful or pleasant to look at 吸引人的,有魅力的,poetic adj.,related to poetry 诗歌的;诗意的,surname n.,family name 姓,remind … of,提醒,使…记起,on the other hand,另一方面,name after,根据…取名,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions3,Text Study,,,Text A,popularity n.,being liked by many people 流行,普及,stand the test of,经得起…的考验,favorite n.,sb. or sth. that is loved above others 特别喜欢的人(或物),nickname n. vt.,a name used informally instead of real name 绰号,昵称give sb. a nickname 给…取绰号,childish adj.,silly, like that of a small child 孩子气的,幼稚的,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions4,Text Study,,,Text A,go by,用…为名字,initial n.,the first letter in a name 姓名的首字母,sweetheart n.,a person whom another loves 甜心(用作“亲爱的”的昵称),flavor n. v.,a particular taste 风味,滋味 lend flavor to 给…加味,reflect vt. &vi.,think in a serious and careful way 反映;深思,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions5,Text Study,,,Text A,address vt. n.,call sb. by a particular name; speak to sb., or give a speech to an audience 称呼;对…演讲或发表演说a formal speech to a group of people正式的讲话;the details of wherea building is, including the buildingnumber, road name, town, etc. 地址,Majesty n.,(与 His, Her 或Your 连用)陛下(对君主的尊称),Honor n.,(与 His, Her 或 Your 连用)阁下(对法官、市长等官员的尊称),Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions6,Text Study,,,Text A,Reverend n.,(the ~)大人(对教士的尊称),a measure of,一定程度的,position n. vt.,sb.’s rank or status in an organization or in society; the place where sb. or sth. is 职位,位置put in a certain place 安置,决定…的位置,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions6,Text Study,,,Text A,politician n.,sb. who works in politics, especially a member of the government 政治家,政客,positive adj.,feeling confident, certain or happy; of a number greater than zero; of the electrical charge that is carried by protons 正面的,肯定的,积极的;[数]正的;[电]阳极的,depend upon,取决于,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions7,Text Study,,,Text A,Proper Names,Shakespeare:,威廉·莎士比亚 (William Shakespeare, 1564–1616),英国著名诗人、剧作家,著名剧作有:《哈姆雷特》(Hamlet)、《奥赛罗》(Othello)、《李尔王》(King Lear)和《麦克白》(Macbeth)等。,Romeo and Juliet:,《罗密欧与朱丽叶》,莎士比亚早期的著名悲剧。描写一对热恋的男女被拆散后双双殉情的故事。引文出自此剧的第二幕第二场。,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text A Words and Expressions8,Text Study,,,Text A,Old World:,旧世界,旧大陆,指欧洲。与其相对应的是New World (新世界,新大陆),指美洲。,“What’s in a name?” According to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, not too much. “That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” But Shakespeare may have been wrong. In most cultures, names and titles matter a great deal.2 Americans choose names for their children with care. Parents usually think about the impression a name gives, not its meaning. Most Americans would consider a “Jennifer” more attractive than a “Betha,” for example.,Text A-1,What’s in a Name?,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,Text A,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Text A-2,The last name, or surname, must also be considered when choosing a first and middle name. A name like Lester Chester Hester would sound poetic, but strange. Parents may avoid names that remind them of people they don’t like. On the other hand, people might name their children after a respected older relative or even a famous person. The popularity of certain names can change with each new generation. Names that were once common, like Fanny or Elmer, sound old-fashioned today. But other names like John and David, Mary and Sarah have stood the test of time and continue to be favorites.,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Text A-3,3 People in America don’t always call their friends and relatives by their given names. Instead, they often use nicknames. Sometimes they call a friend by the short form for a longer name. For instance, a girl named Elizabeth may be called Lisa, or Betsy. As children grow up, they may decide for themselves which nickname they wish to be called. If they consider their nickname childish, they may start using a more adult form. Some people just go by the initials of their first and middle names, like B. J. or R. C. And of course, people may call their children or their sweethearts other special names. Often they have a sweet flavor, like Honey or Sugar.,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,,,,,Text A-4,4 In informal settings, people are normally on a first-name basis. Sometimes older people even allow young people to call them by their first names. But in most formal situations, people use an appropriate title such as Mr. (Mister), Ms. (Miss or Mrs.), Dr. (doctor) or Prof. (professor) with a person’s last name. After an introduction, the person may say, for example, “Please call me Tom.” If not, use his or her surname.,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,,,Text A-5,5 Americans still use a few very formal titles which reflect their Old World heritage. The British address their king and queen as Your Majesty; Americans address the judge in a court as Your Honor. Americans speaking to their national leader respectfully call him Mr. President. And many churches address their leader as Reverend. In everyday situations, the polite forms sir and madam (or ma’am) show a measure of respect. But Americans don’t generally use the names of occupations or positions as formal titles. Students might address their teacher as Mr. (or Ms.) Hudson, but not Teacher Hudson.,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,,,,,,,Text A-6,Text A,Comprehension,Words and Expressions,Vocabulary Building,Text Study,,,6 What’s in a name? A name really means a lot. So if you are choosing an English name for yourself, take care to choose a good one. A made-up name could sound strange to native English speakers. And a translation of your Chinese name may not make an appropriate name, either. But a good name can leave a positive and lasting impression. As an American politician once said, “In real life, unlike in Shakespeare, the sweetness of the rose depends upon the name it bears.”,,,,,,,,,,Text A- Comprehension1,A. Complete the following sentences orally according to the text, and then work with your partner and take turns asking and answering the questions orally.,
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