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2018届高考必考语法精讲精练专题十二:非谓语动词 Word版含解析.doc

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2018届高考必考语法精讲精练专题十二:非谓语动词 Word版含解析.doc
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高考必考语法精讲精练语法专题十二:非谓语动词非谓语动词是高考必考点, 《2017 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲》附录语法项目表中对非谓语动词列了三项:动词不定式、动名词和分词(包括现在分词和过去分词) 。2015 年高考全国卷Ⅰ第 68 题和 70 题(语法填空)分别考查了过去分词 conducted 和现在分词 living 做后置定语。2016 年高考全国卷Ⅰ第 66 题和 67 题(语法填空)分别考查了过去分词表示被动和动名词做宾语。2017 年高考全国卷Ⅰ第63 题和 68 题(语法填空)分别考查了动词不定式做宾补和动名词做宾语。非谓语动词包括动词不定式、动名词和分词,其中分词又包括现在分词和过去分词。 非谓语动词可以充当除了谓语之外的其他成分,如下表:动词不定式一、动词不定式的形式主语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 补语不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √动名词 √ √ √ √分 词 √ √ √ √主动 被动一般式 to do to be done否定式 not to do not to be done完成时 to have done to have been done2、动词不定式的用法动词不定式可以充当谓语之外的所有句子成分,动词不定式可以带宾语或状语构成不定式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。 1.作主语(1)动词不定式作主语,一般表示具体的某次动作,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:①To see is to believe.②To master English is of great importance.(2)不定式或不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,构成 “It is + adj+for sb.+to do”结构,或 It is +adj+for sth +to be done。例如:①It is impossible for him to give up smoking. ②It is not easy to find your way in the mountain.③It is difficult for the problem to be solved.④It is impossible for my question to be answered in his absence.2.作宾语(1)动词不定式作宾语时,常跟在某些及物动词后面,常见的有:agree,dare,decide,expect,help,hope ,learn,manage,offer,pretend,promise,refuse,want, intend, fail, wish, choose 等。例如:①I mean to go there at once.②We must learn to tell friends from enemies.(2)不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾补之后,而用 it 作形式宾语。句型为“主语+find (feel, think, believe, consider,etc) +it+形容词/名词+to do sth”。例如:①I think it necessary to report the thing to the teacher.②I find it interesting to work with him. (3)动词不定式还可以用作介词 except、but 和 besides 的宾语,如果介词前为动词 do的某种形式,则后面接不带 to 的不定式,否则带 to。cannot choose but、cannot help but 和cannot but 后的不定式也省略 to。常用句型有:There is nothing to do but+do 例如:There is nothing to do but wait.do nothing but/except+do 例如:We can do nothing but wait.cannot help/choose but+do 例如:We cannot choose but wait.have no choice but to do 例如:We have no choice but to wait.进行式 to be doing 无3.作表语动词不定式作表语,常放在系动词之后,表示将来的动作,主语常常是表示意向、打算、计划的词,如 wish,task,purpose,duty,job 等。例如:①To teach is to learn.②My job is to help the patient.【注意】如果在主语中(通常在主语从句或修饰主语的定语从句中)有实义动词 do 时,作表语的动词不定式省略 to。例如:All I want to do now (What I want to do now) is fill my stomach.4.作定语不定式可以放在名词、代词、序数词、the only 和形容词最高级等后面作定语。常被不定式修饰的名词有:chance,need,promise,time,opportunity,way 等。不定式常表示将来的动作。(1)不定式与被修饰的名词往往构成逻辑上的关系。如果不定式与该句的主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,则不定式用主动形式;如果不定式与该句的主语不构成逻辑上的主谓关系,则不定式用被动形式。例如:①He is not a man to tell lies.②There will not be enough space to stand in on the earth. ③--- I will go home tomorrow,do you have anything to be taken to your parents?---No,thanks.(2)作定语的不定式与所修饰的名词之间是动宾关系, 而且不定式动词又是不及物动词时,应在该动词上加上一个介词。例如:①He has a nice pen to write with.②He is looking for a room to live in.③It is said that the best way to travel by is on foot.5.作状语不定式作状语时,可表示目的、原因、结果或条件。例如:I’m very glad to hear the news. (原因)不定式作目的状语时,常可构成 in order to, so as to 例如:He got up early so as not to be late.不定式可以跟在表语的形容词之后作状语。例如:The question is difficult to answer.有些不定式短语可以做独立成份,通常放在句首,有时置于句中或句未,须用逗号的开,如:to begin with,to be honest,to tell you the truth 等。例如:To be honest,my English is poor.不定式作结果状语常用如下句型:Too + 形容词/副词 + to do sth 例如:He is too young to go to school.形容词/副词 + enough + to do sth 例如:He is old enough to dress himself.enough+名词 +to do sth 例如:I have enough money to buy a car.such +(形容词)名词 +as to do sth 例如:He is such a clever boy as to work out the question quickly.so + 形容词/副词 + as to do sth 例如:He is so clever a boy as to work out the question quickly.【注意】不定式作状语,其逻辑主语与句子主语必须一致。【注意】不定式可以放在 only 后面表示未曾预料的结果。例如:①He hurried to the railway station,only to find that the train had left.②I got to his house ,only to be told that he wasn’t in.6.作补语(宾语补足语和主语补足语) ,有两种情况:(1)接带 to 的不定式作宾语补足语,这类动词或动词短语有:ask, tell, invite, force, get, beg, allow, help, wish, want, like, hate, prefer, expect, encourage, advise, persuade, instruct, permit, request, order, warn, cause, urge, call on, depend on, long for, wait for 等,构成V+sb.+to do 结构。例如:①I didn’t mean you to hear it.②We are longing for the new term to begin.(2)在感官动词(see, hear, feel, listen to , notice, watch, observe 等)和使役动词(let, have,make )后的补足语中,不定式不带 to。但这类句子变成被动语态时,必须带 to。 (注意:let, have 不用于被动语态)例如:①I saw him play in the park.→He was seen to play in the park.②The boss made those men work day and night.→Those men were made to work day and night.注意:tell、advise 等动词后面可以接“连接代词或连接副词+to do”作宾语补足语。例如:You did not tell me how to pronounce the word. 动名词动名词的基本形式是由动词末尾加-ing 形式构成,动名词具有动词和名词的特点:动词的特点体现在它可以有自己的宾语、状语和补足语,有时态和语态的变化;名词的特点体现在它可以作主语、宾语、表语和定语。一、动名词的时态、语态和否定形式动名词的时态有一般式和完成式;语态有主动和语态和被动语态;动名词的否定式是主动语态 被动语态一般式 doing being done完成式 having done having been done否定式not doingnot having donenot being donenot having been done直接在其前面加上 not。以 do 为例,列表说明如下:1、动名词的时态。动名词的一般式表示的动作通常是一般性的动作,即不是明确地发生在过去、现在或将来的动作,或者是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的动作;完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。例如:①I am interested in playing basketball.②He didn’t mention having met you at the meeting.2、动名词的语态。如果句子的主语是该动名词动作的承受者,即句子的主语与动名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,则动名词要用被动形式。例如:①She didn’t mind being left at home.(句子的主语 she 与动词 leave 构成动宾关系,且动作基本同时发生。)②I forgot having been told about it. (句子的主语 I 与动词 tell 构成动宾关系,且动作已经完成。)二、动名词的语法功能1.作主语:动名词做主语可以放在句首,有时候也可以用 it 做形式主语,常常构成一些固定句型,如:It’s a waste of time doing...;It’s no use/good doing...例如:①Teaching is my full-time job.②Writing an English composition is not easy. ③It’s a waste of time arguing with him.④It’s no use taking this kind of medicine.2.作宾语:(1)作动词的宾语。只接动名词作宾语的常见动词有:resist、mind、suggest、delay 、keep 、look forward to、enjoy、include、appreciate、imagine、practice 、finish、succeed in、consider、can’t help、miss 等。例如:①I have just finished doing my home work. ②I suggested asking his brother for some money.③He keeps buying expensive maps. 【注意】以下几个动词或短语后面跟动名词作宾语和跟动词不定式作宾语意义不同:mean,remember,stop ,forget,regret,try,go on。forgetError!regretError!tryError!go onError!rememberError!meanError!to do sth.停下来去做某事 stop doing sth.停止做某事例如:①Please stop talking.②Let’s stop to have a rest.③I regret telling him the secret.④I regret to tell you that you have missed the exam.(2)作介词的宾语,常用于固定短语和句型中。如:be/get used to,devote...to...,look forward to,pay attention to,get down to,think of,be proud of,prevent...from...,keep...from....,be engaged in,feel like 以及 have some/no/any difficulty(trouble) in, have fun(pleasure) in, have a good(hard) time,there is no need/use/good/harm/hurry(in)等。例如:①We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term.②There is no need arguing with him.3.作表语:动名词作表语时,句子的主语常常是表示无生命的名词或 what 引导的名词性从句。作表语的动名词与主语通常是对等关系,表示主语的内容,主语与表语可互换位置。例如:①My job is teaching. = Teaching is my job.②Her full-time job is laying eggs. =Laying eggs is her full-time job.③What I hate most is being laughed at.4.作定语:动名词作定语表示性质或用途。a washing machine = a machine for washinga swimming pool = a pool for swimming分词(现在分词和过去分词)过去分词只有一种形式,即 done,没有其他变化形式,而现在分词有时态和语态的变化。如下表所示(以 do 为例) 。分词的语法功能:1. 作定语: 现在分词作定语,可以表示名词的用途,也可以表示主动意义或正在进行的动作或当时的状态,此时现在分词在意义上相当于一个定语从句。过去分词作定语表示被动或完成。一般而言,单个的分词作定语要放在被修饰词之前,分词短语作定语放在被修饰词之后。例如:a developing country = a country which is developinga sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping①The man standing at the window is our teacher.② Polluted air and water are harmful to people's health.③The building built last year was a hospital.④The meeting being held now is very important. 【注意】如果两个动词有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而用定语从句,即现在分词的完成主动式 having done 以及完成被动式 having been done 不能作定语。如,我们不能说:I have heard of the accident having happened yesterday.而是用定语从句代替:I have heard of the accident that happened yesterday.再如,我们不能说:I didn’t find my wallet having been stolen.而用定语从句:及 物 动 词 不及物动词主 动 被 动 主 动一般式 doing being done doing 完成式 having done having been done having doneI didn’t find my wallet which had been stolen.2. 作状语:现在分词作状语。表时间、原因、条件、结果、伴随(方式)等。 特点:1.分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语一致 . 2. 表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连词 while 或 when 引导。3.如果主语不一致,要采用独立主格结构。现在分词的一般式 doing 和完成主动式 having done 作状语时,与句子的主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。doing 表示的动作和句子的谓语动词所表示的动作基本同时发生或现在分词的动作正在发生;having done 则表示其动作先于句子的谓语动词的动作发生。例如:①Hearing the bell,the students entered the classroom.(时间)②Hearing the cry for help, he rushed out.(时间)③While reading the book, he nodded from time to time.(时间)④Having finished his work,he went home.(时间)⑤Seeing from the hill, you can get the whole town.(条件)⑥Not having received an answer,he decided to write another letter.(原因)⑦The students ran out of the classroom, talking and laughing .(伴随)⑧Football is played all around the world, making it the most popular sport.(结果)过去分词 done 和现在分词的完成被动式 having been done 作状语时,与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系。而且表示的动作在句子的谓语动词之前就已经发生。例如:①Given(=Having been given)a wrong number,I couldn’t contact him over the phone.(原因)②Having been warned many times,they became more and more careful in doing the job.(时间)③Seen from the hill, the whole town is beautiful.(条件)④Not satisfied with the result, we decided to do the experiment again.(原因)⑤He entered the room,followed by his girlfriend .(伴随)⑥If allowed, he would eat all the food in the house.(条件)【注意】分词作状语时,如果分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,则通常在它前面加上它的主语构成独立主格结构,即“n. + -ed/-ing”。 (非谓语动词及其短语前面带有逻辑主语,逻辑主语的代词又是主格,故常称为“独立主格”。 )例如:①Her work finished(=After her work had been finished), she sat down for a cup of tea.②There being no taxis(=Because there was no taxis), we had to walk.③Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing tomorrow.④An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=Because an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night.⑤He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head)有时也用“with(without)+名词(或代词宾格)+分词“ 的结构表示伴随状况的独立主格结构。例如:He fell asleep with the lamp burning.补充:其他形式的独立主格结构(n. +不定式; n. +介词短语; n. +形容词; n. +副词)例如:①He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help.②The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand.③So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off.④The meeting over, they all went home. 3. 作宾补:现在分词做宾补的两大特征:一是宾语与现在分词之间与主语之间有主谓关系;二是现在分词所表示的动作正在进行。能跟现在分词作宾语补足语的常见动词有:make、 let、have、look at、see 、watch、hear、listen to、notice、feel。 (三让、三看、两听、注意感觉) 。例如:①I heard the girl singing in the classroom.②I saw a long queue outside the bank waiting for it to open.③The baby watched his dad shaving his face with interest.④We saw the teacher making the experiment .过去分词做宾补的两大特征:一是及物动词的过去分词做宾补与宾语有动宾关系;二是不及物动词的过去分词做宾补与宾语有主谓关系,多用来表示动作已经完成。能借过去分词做宾补的常见动词有:have,make,see,hear,find,leave,want 等。例如:①I've never heard the song sung in English.②I saw the horse tied to a tree.③People found the thief escaped. 4.作表语:分词放在系动词后面作表语。现在分词作表语指物,过去分词作表语指人。例如:①The movie is inspiring.②He is inspired by the movie.③The story he told us was very interesting.④He is interested in English.高考英语短文改错及语法填空分析与训练·非谓语动词考点规律分析:短文改错对非谓语动词的考查主要涉及不定式符号 to 的有无,介词后该使用动词的什么形式(用动名词 ),并列结构中几个非谓语动词是否一致,动词用作主语时用何种形式(可用动名词或不定式,但不能用动词原形 )等。语法填空主要涉及非谓语动词的形式选择。非谓语动词单句改错之真题训练:1. David and I wanted go off to find help but Bill insisted on staying near the car. 2. …rather than go into the forest and getting lost. 3.David pointed to a path which he thought would probably leading to a village. 4. I went back to get David and helped him to stood up. 5.Charles and Linda Mason do all of these things as well as climbed building. 6.Modern people know more about health, have better food, and to live in clearer surroundings. 7.The World Health Organization and other organizations are working improve health all over the world.8.…you pay the cost of send a postcard, the librarian will write to you. 9....and let you to know when the book you want has returned.10. I want to thank you again for have me in your home for the summer holidays. 11. I had always wanted return to the village after moving away. 12.It was very kind of them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their home. 13.I look forward to hear from you soon. 14. Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also gives us a sense of fair play and team spirit. 15. I was often a little tired after a day’s work and watch TV demands very little effort.16.I’d like very much come but I have an examination on Monday morning. 17. I’ll spend the whole weekend reading and prepare for it. 18. But then there is always more mysteries look into. 19.After learn the basics of the subject, nothing else seemed very practical to me. 20. My parents love me dearly of course and will do all they can make sure that I get a good education. 21.He did not want share things with other people. 22.That is, a game of tennis making him very busy. 23. As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. 24. But his parents think go to college is more important than playing sports. 25. …children may not develop the habit of read and the ability to enjoy themselves. 26.…to make children to want things that they don’t really need.27. Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper as I was learning to express myself in simple English. 28. Shake her head, she said,“It isn’t a good time to do that, dear.” 29.It’s like going to a huge library without have to walk around to find your books. 30. I am thinking of making a trip to London, and visit the British Museum and some parks.31. I have some records giving to me as birthday gifts.32. I dream of standing on the platform in the classroom and give lessons to lovely boys and girls.非谓语动词单句改错之模拟训练:1. In those days we were forced work twelve hours a day.2. It’s very difficult for a foreigner learn Chinese.3. It was silly of you believe what he said.4. He was made wash the boss’s car once a day.5. I’ll let you to know as soon as I hear from her.6. I waved to her but failed attract her attention.7. I have already seen the film twice. I don’t want see it any more.8. What I want know is when all this happened.9. It was clear that he wanted be alone.10.Most children are interested in listen to stories.11.Walk quickly is difficult for an old man.12. Be careful in cross the street. 13. The film is very interesting. It is worth see twice.14.Find work is very difficult these days.15. Most of us students enjoy ask questions in English.16. Look, some of my classmates are practising speak English. 17. Teach a child to sing and dance is very interesting.18. Learn to speak English is more difficult than to write it.19. My friend Jim is very good at making things and repair things.20. He decided to go to the south, find a good job and living there.21. It was very kind of you to buy us so much fruit and seeing us at the station.22. Excuse me, would you to tell me the way to the zoo?非谓语动词单句改错之提升训练:1. A lot of money has been spent to buy the book.2. You will have to pay the cost of send a postcard.3. What he did was puzzled.4. I will spend a week reading and prepare for the examination.5. Charles and Linda do all of these things as well as climbed buildings.6. Yesterday I had my bad tooth pulling out. 7. I heard her singing a song which moved me to tears.8. I made a terrible mistake. I regretted not to taking your advice. 9. When we reached the top of the mountain, we stopped to having a rest before we went down the mountain.10. There’ll be a good film tonight, remember to seeing it on time!11. The game was over, she went h
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