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类型英语句子结构分析基础及练习.doc

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    英语句子结构分析基础及练习.doc
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    1、句子成分什么叫句子成分呢?句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中,词与词之间有一定的组合关系,按照不同的关系,可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject ) 、谓语( predicate) 、表语( predicative) 、宾语(object) 、定语(attribute) 、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement) 。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。英语五种基本句型列

    2、式如下:一: (主谓)二: (主系表)三: (主谓宾)四: (主谓间宾直宾)五: (主谓宾宾补)基本句型 一: (主谓)主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如 boy) ,主格代词(如 you) ,动词不定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家! 谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如: We come. 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 (不及物动词) 1. The sun was shining. 太阳在照耀

    3、着。2. The moon rose. 月亮升起了。3. The universe remains. 宇宙长存。4. We all breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。5. Who cares? 管它呢? 6. What he said does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。 7. They talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。 8. The pen writes smoothly 这支笔书写流利。基本句型 二: (主系表)此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明

    4、主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem 等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义 ,只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。感官动词多可用作联系动词:look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错 ,feel good/感觉好, smell bad/难闻 (是系动词) 1. This is an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。2. The dinner smell

    5、s good. 午餐的气味很好。3. He fell in love. 他堕入了情网。 4. Everything looks different. 一切看来都不同了。5. He is growing tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮6. The troubleis that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。7. Our well has gone dry. 我们井干枯了。 8. His face turned red. 他的脸红了。There be 结构: There be 表示存在有 。这里的 there 没有实际意义,不可与副词the

    6、re 那里混淆。 此结构后跟名词,表示(存在)有某事物 试比较:There is a boy there.(那儿有一个男孩。 ) /前一个 there 无实意,后一个 there 为副词 那里 。 基本句型 三: (主谓宾)此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的是构成宾语的代词必须是代词宾格 ,如:me ,him,them 等 (及物动词) 1. Who knows the answer? 谁知道答案? 2. She smile

    7、d her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。3. He has refused to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。4. He enjoys reading. 他喜欢看书。5. They ate what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。6. He said “Good morning.“ 他说:“早上好!“7. I want to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。 8. He admits that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。基本句型 四: (主谓间宾直宾)有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give 给,pass 递,bring 带,

    8、show 显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如: Give me a cup of tea, please.强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:Show this house to Mr. Smith.若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:Bring it to me, please. (及物) (多指人) (多指物) 1. She ordered herself a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。2. She

    9、cooked her husband a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。3. He brought you a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。4. He denies her nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。5. I showed him my pictures. 我给他看我的照片6. I gave my car a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。7. I told him that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。8. He showed me how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。基本句型 五: (

    10、主谓宾宾补)此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。名词/代词宾格 + 名词The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士 .名词/代词宾格 + 形容词New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式T

    11、he teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路. (及物) (宾语) (宾补) 1. They appointed him manager. 他们任命他当经理。2. They painted the door green. 他们把门漆成绿色3. This set them thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。4. They found the house deserted. 他们发现那房子无人

    12、居住。5. What makes him think so? 他怎么会这样想?6. We saw him out. 我们送他出去7. He asked me to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。8. I saw them getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词) ,也可以是各种类型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语) 。我们称之为:定语、状语一

    13、、 定语:定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用的表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修饰some, any, every, no 构成的复合不定代词时, (如:something、nothing) ;或不定式、分词短语作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 形容词作定语:The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy;blue 修饰名词 pen.)/小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。Tom is a handsome boy./Tom 是个英俊的男孩。There is a good boy./有个

    14、乖男孩。数词作定语相当于形容词:Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。 代词或名词所有格作定语:His boy needs Toms pen./他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有 Tom 家的两个男孩。 介词短语作定语:The boy in the classroom needs a pen

    15、of yours./教室里的男孩需要你的一支钢笔。The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个 9 岁的,三个 10 岁的男孩。 名词作定语:The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。副词作定语:The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。The b

    16、est boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 不定式作定语:The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男孩需要一支钢笔。The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。 分词(短语)作定语:The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那个微笑的男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。The pen bought by her is made in Ch

    17、ina./她买的笔是中国产的。There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。 定语从句:The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday./那个在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的钢笔。The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有五个。 二、状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、因果、条件、时间、地点、让步、方向、程度、目的等。状语在句子中的位置很灵活

    18、,常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句首;修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首,地点状语一般须在时间状语之前;一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost )的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之后,动词之前。 有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应注意,如:The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理解成男孩喊教室里的女孩(此时 in the classroom 为 girl 的定语) ,也可以理解为 男孩在教室里喊女孩 (此时 in the c

    19、lassroom 为地点状语) ,最好写作In the classroom, the boy calls the girl. 副词(短语)作状语:The boy needs a pen very much./男孩非常需要一支钢笔。 (程度状语)The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother./男孩非常需要他母亲买的那支钢笔。 (宾语较长则状语前置)The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。 (程度状语)The boy needs a pen now./Now, the boy needs a pen.

    20、/The boy, now, needs a pen./男孩现在需要一支钢笔。 (时间状语) 介词短语作状语:In the classroom, the boy needs a pen./在教室里,男孩需要一支钢笔。 (地点状语)Before his mother, Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语)On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom./星期天 ,教室里没有学生.(时间状语) 分词(短语)作状语:He sits there, asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。

    21、 (表示伴随状态)Having to finish his homework, the boy needs a pen./因为不得不完成作业,男孩需要一支笔。 (原因状语)Frightened, he sits there soundlessly./(因为)受了惊吓,他无声地坐在那儿。 (原因状语) 不定式作状语:The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。(目的状语)To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business./为实现梦想,汤姆变得对商业

    22、很有兴趣. 名词作状语:Come this way!/走这条路!(方向状语) 状语从句:时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句 三、同位语:同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后置定语。如:We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语,都是指同一批学生 )We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语,都指同样的我们 ) 四、独立成分:有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分,称为句子独立成分(注意:区别

    23、于分词独立结构)。感叹词:oh, hello, aha, ah,等。肯定词 yes否定词 no称呼语:称呼人的用语。插入语:一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。如: The story, I think, has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结束.情态词,表示说话人的语气(多作为修饰全句的状语):perhaps 也许,maybe 大概,actually 实际上,certainly 当然,等。五、分词独立结构:分词作状语时其逻辑主语与句子的主语一致! 否则应有自己的逻辑主语,构成分词独立结构。例:错句:Studying hard,

    24、your score will go up.正确:(1) Studying hard, you can make your score go up.或 (2)If you study hard, your score will go up.解析:错句中分词 studying 没有自带逻辑主语,则其逻辑主语就是句子的主语,既 your score . 显然做 study 的应是人,不应是 your score(分数). 正确句(1)更正了句子的主语,使其与分词逻辑主语一致( 同为 you );正确句 (2)则使用条件分句带出 study 的主语,(不过已经不是分词结构了). 分词独立结构常省略

    25、being, having been.不过There being.的场合不能省略.如:Game (being) over, he went home.He stands there, book (being) in hand. 独立结构还可用 with、without 引导,作状语或定语。这种结构不但可以用分词,还可以用不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词或名词等。如:With nothing to do, he fell asleep soon./无事可做,他很快就睡着了。The teacher came in, with glasses on his nose./老师进来了,戴着一付眼镜。 (注

    26、意,此句 on his nose 不可省略!) 句子成分练习题( 一 ) (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4 分, 4 分钟) The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. There is an old man coming here. The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. To do todays homework without the teachers help is very difficult.(二) 选出句中谓语的

    27、中心词(10 分, 10 分钟) I dont like the picture on the wall.A. dont B. like C. picture D. wall The days get longer and longer when summer comes.A. get B. longer C. days D. summer Do you usually go to school by bus?A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon.A. will b

    28、e B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast?A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast Tom didnt do his homework yesterday.A. Tom B. didnt C. do D. his homework What I want to tell you is this.A. want B. to tell C. you D. is We had better send for a doctor.A. W

    29、e B. had C. send D. doctor He is interested in music.A. is B. interested C. in D. music Whom did you give my book to?A. give B. did C. whom D. book(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语(10 分,10 分钟) My brother hasnt done his homework. People all over the world speak English. You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

    30、 How many new words did you learn last class? Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. They made him monitor of the class. Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. You will find it useful after you l

    31、eave school. They didnt know who “Father Christmas“ really is.(四) 挑出下列句中的表语(5 分, 5 分钟) The old man was feeling very tired. Why is he worried about Jim? The leaves have turned yellow. Soon They all became interested in the subject. She was the first to learn about it.(五) 挑出下列句中的定语(6 分,6 分钟) They use

    32、Mr. and Mrs. with the family name. What is your given name? On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. The man downstairs was trying to sleep. I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!(六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语(6 分, 6 分钟) She likes the children to read new

    33、spapers and books in the reading-room. He asked her to take the boy out of school. She found it difficult to do the work. They call me Lily sometimes. I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?(七) 挑出下列句中的状语(8 分, 8 分钟) There was a big smile on her

    34、face. Every night he heard the noise upstairs. He began to learn English when he was eleven. The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. She loves the library because she loves books. I am afraid that if youve lost it, you must pay for

    35、it. The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(5 分, 5 分钟) Please tell us a story. My father bought a new bike for me last week. Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. Did he leave any message for me?句子成分练习题( 二 ) 指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成

    36、分:1.Whether well go depend on the weather .2. Peoples standards of living are going up steadily .3. That was how they were defeated.4.The nursery takes good care of our children .5.Ill return the book to you tomorrow .6.We are sure that we shall succeed .7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his ot

    37、her .8.There are many film that Id like to see.9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking ?10.I have a lot of work to do .11. Anyway I wont stop you from doing it .12. I said it in fun .13. We can send a car over to fetch you .14. She had to work standing up .15. Seeing this ,some comrades

    38、 became very worried .16. Much interested , he agreed to give it a try .17. The bus arrived ten minutes late .18. We should serve the people heart and soul.19. Spring coming on , the tree turned green .20. Some farmers saw something strange in the sky .21. We think it necessary that everyone should

    39、attend the meeting .22. Its strange that she doesnt come today .23. It was in the library that I come today .24. He likes drawing at times when he isnt working .25. We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 句子成分练习题( 三 ) A1、 _ six years since I began to study English.A. It is B. I have

    40、 been C. There are D. It was 2 、_ in the room at that time.A. Nobody was B. Someone were C. Who is D. He are 3 、ITS very noisy outside. _ is going on? A. Who B. What C. Which D. Where 4、 _ in English in class every day is important.A. Speak B. Talking C. Saying D. To tell5 、There must be_ near the f

    41、actory.A. a book store B. book store C. books store D. books stores6 、Although its raining hard, _ are still working in the fields.A. but they B. and they C. they D. since theyB1、 The doctor as well as the nurses _ great concern for the patients.A. show B. shows C. have shown D. are showing 2、 Your

    42、son must be a clever boy, _ he?A. is B. isnt C. must D. mustnt 3、 The computer center, _ last year, is very popular among students in this school.A. open B. opening C. opened D. being opened 4 、I _ go to the shop today, for there is a lot of food at home.A. mustnt B. had to C. cant D. neednt 5 、Dont

    43、 _ excited.A. get B. is C. seem D. look 6 This room _ every morning.A. is cleaning B. is cleaned C. cleans D. cleaningC1、 Glad to meet you! _ is your full name?A. What B. Where C. How D. Who 2、 He is _ to lift the heavy box.A. too weak B. weak too C. enough weak D. weak enough3、 The days are _ warme

    44、r and warmer in spring.A. getting B. looking C. seeming D. going 4 、His job is_ English.A. teach B. to teach C. taught D. teaches5 、Two balls are_.A. under the desk B. in the wall C. to here D. at desksD1 、We should get ready_ others.A. helping B. to help C. help D. help with 2、 _interesting work we

    45、 are doing?A. What a B. How C. What D. What an 3、 I want_ a teacher when I grow up.A. to be B. to C. be D. being 4、 -Would you like to go on a picnic with me today?-I dont think so. To be honest, I really dont feel like _on a picnic.A. going B. to go C. go D. went 5 Do you know_?A. where does he liv

    46、e B. where he livesC. where he live D. if where he lives 6 Let _ do it again.A. I B. me C. he D. she 7 I dont know_.A. how to do B. what to do C. where to do D. when to doE1、 I saw him _ basketball with Jack an hour ago.A. plays B. to play C. played D. play 2、 Sorry, weve kept you_ for a long time.A

    47、. waited B. sing C. stand D. waiting 3 、The teacher told us _ late again.A. arent be B. dont be C. not to be D. not be 4 、We find the room very_.A. warm B. warmly C. terribly D. hardlyF1 、I found _ difficult to work together with him.A. it B. its C. that D. those 2 、We all know _ our duty to clean o

    48、ur classroom after school every day.A. that B. this C. which D. it 3、 He found _ very interesting to play with the little dog.A. what B. it C. / D. thatG( ) 1 Tom said he _ a good dream yesterday evening.A. dream B. dreamed C. have D. has ( ) 2 Children _ a happy life in China.A. lead B. living C. has D. leadingH( ) 1 America,

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