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An Introduction to Language,10e answer key.pdf

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An Introduction to Language 10e answer key.pdf
V i c t o r i a F r o m k i n Late, University of California, Los Angeles r o b e r t r o d m a n North Carolina State University, Raleigh n i n a h ya m s University of California, Los Angeles Prepared by Brook Danielle Lillehaugen Haverford College Answer Key An Introduction to Language 10e Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States© 2014, 2011, 2007 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN-13: 978-1-285-07978-3 ISBN-10: 1-285-07978-7 Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan. Locate your local office at international.cengage.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com. Instructors: Please visit login.cengage.com and log in to access instructor-specific resources. Answer Key: An Introduction to Language, Tenth Edition Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams Publisher: Michael Rosenberg Development Editor: Joan M. Flaherty Assistant Editor: Erin Bosco Editorial Assistant: Rebecca Donahue Media Editor: Janine Tangney Market Development Manager: Jason LaChapelle Content Project Manager: Dan Saabye Art Director: Marissa Falco Manufacturing Planner: Betsy Donaghey Rights Acquisition Specialist: Jessica Elias Production Service: PreMediaGlobal Text Designer: Design and Production Services Cover Designer: Sarah Bishins Design Cover Image: © 2009 Calder Foundation, New York/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Calder, Alexander (1898-1976) © ARS, NY. Crinkly, 1970. Sheet metal, wire, and paint. 71.1 x 166.4 x 30.5 cm. Location: Calder Foundation, New York, NY, U.S.A. Photo Credit: Calder Foundation, New York/Art Resource, NY Compositor: PreMediaGlobal Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 15 14 13 For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer look the data over. True prepositions do not behave this way. He ran up the stairs is grammati- cal, but *He ran the stairs up is not. The by in He drove by my house functions as a preposition and may not occur after the direct object. g. *Did in a corner little Jack Horner sit? You cannot turn a statement that begins with a prepositional phrase into a question. While you can form a question from Little Jack Horner sat in a corner with Did little Jack Horner sit in a corner, you cannot question the sentence In a corner little Jack Horner sat. h. *Elizabeth is resembled by Charles. The verb resemble does not occur in passive sentences. k. *It is eager to love a kitten. If the pronoun it refers to an animate (nonhuman) thing (e.g., a dog), the sentence is grammatical. If the word it is a “dummy subject,” as 2in It’s easy to love a kitten, the sentence is ungrammatical because the adjective eager must have a referential subject. l. *That birds can fly flabbergasts. Flabbergast is a transitive verb: it requires a direct object. Compare That birds can fly flabbergasts John. n. *Has the nurse slept the baby yet? The verb sleep is intransitive: it cannot take a direct object (in this case, the baby). o. *I was surprised for you to get married. The clause following the adjective surprised cannot be in the infini- tive form, e.g., to get. p. *I wonder who and Mary went swimming. This “question” is derived from the more basic sentence Someone and Mary went swimming. The coordinate structure constraint (see Chapter 3 for mention, but not a complete description) requires co- ordinate structures to be treated as a whole, not in part. So it is un- grammatical in most, but not all dialects of English, to ask *Who and Mary went swimming? because there is an attempt to question one part, but not the other part, of the coordinate structure. This also explains the ungrammatical nature of *I wonder who and Mary went swimming with similar caveats about dialectal and idiolectal variation. q. *Myself bit John. Reflexive pronouns like myself, yourself, herself, themselves, etc., do not occur as subjects of sentences but only as objects, e.g., John hurt himself. s. *What did Alice eat the toadstool and? A wh- phrase cannot be moved from inside a coordinate structure (e.g., the toadstool and the fungi) to form a wh- question.3. Onomatopoeic words. Sample answers: swish—what you do when you ski thunk—the sound of a baseball hitting a mitt scrunge—the sound of a sponge wiping a table glup—the sound made when you swallow squeeng—the sound made when you pluck a taut elastic band4. Nonarbitrary and arbitrary signs. Sample answers: a. Nonarbitrary signs: • a picture of a knife and fork indicating a restaurant • the wheelchair sign that indicates disabled persons such as is used to reserve parking3• “No Smoking” sign with a slash through a burning cigarette • “Do not Iron” sign on clothes depicting an iron with an X through it b. Arbitrary signs: • some gestures (e.g., a thumbs-up or a thumbs-down) • stripes on military uniforms to represent different ranks • a black armband for someone in mourning • the U.S. zip code system • some mathematical symbols (e.g., 1, 2, 5)5. Learning. The first statement (I learned a new word today) is quite prob- able. We constantly add to our vocabulary. In reading this book, for ex- ample, you may learn many new words. The second statement (I learned a new sentence today) is not very likely, since most sentences are not learned or memorized but rather constructed freely. Some sentences, such as slogans or sentences from a foreign language, may be learned as whole entities.6. Alex, the African grey parrot. Answers will vary. Students may point out that Alex’s ability to mimic human speech and the size of his vocabulary are quite impressive. They may further point out, however, that the abil- ity to make human-like sounds and to memorize even a large number of words is not, in itself, language. The real question is not whether Alex can use human-like sounds to communicate, which he clearly can, but whether he has human language-like capabilities. Human language is an infinitely creative system made up of discrete, meaningful parts that may be combined in various ways. While Alex’s talents are impressive, he can communicate only a small set of messages, while human language is infinitely creative in both the number and kinds of messages transmitted. There is no data demonstrating that Alex has any understanding or use of syntax. Without syntax, the communication system cannot be anything more than a com- munication system.7. Communication system of a wolf. While a wolf’s communication system is quite large and complex, it is finite and restricted to a limited set of messages within a single domain (the wolf’s current emotions). Human language, on the other hand, is capable of expressing an infinite number of messages on any topic. Moreover, a wolf is unable to produce new mes- sages using a different combination of independently meaningful gestures the way humans can.8. A dog’s understanding of speech. No. Even if the dog learned to respond to given cues to heel, sit up, beg, roll over, play dead, stay, jump, and bark in the correct way, it would not be learning language since its response would be driven solely by those cues. Such responses are stimulus-controlled 4behavior. There is no creative aspect to the system: the dog could not associate a novel combination of cues with a complex action.9. “Correct” rules of grammar. Here are some rules, often taught in English classes, which seem unnatural to many speakers: a. Never end a sentence with a preposition. Yet What are you putting those marbles into? is more common and natural for the majority of English speakers (including teachers of English) than Into what are you putting those marbles? English grammar permits the splitting of prepositional phrases. b. Don’t split infinitives (i.e., don’t insert anything between the infinitive marker to and the verb). However, a sentence such as He was the first one to successfully climb Mount Everest is grammatical. c. Use whom rather than who when the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition, e.g., Whom (rather than who) did you meet yesterday? While this may have been part of the mental grammar of English speak- ers in the past, for most dialects the syntax has changed and Who did you meet yesterday? is the grammatical or “acceptable” structure. The essay may point out that a descriptive grammar describes speakers’ basic linguistic knowledge while a prescriptive grammar postulates a set of rules that are considered “correct.” Prescriptive grammarians often misun- derstand the nature of language change and ignore the fact that all dialects are rule-governed and capable of expressing thought of any complexity.10. Comments on Chomsky’s remark. Chomsky believes that if apes were en- dowed with the ability to acquire language they would do so. The answer to this question should reflect an understanding of the studies presented in the chapter, which purport to show that the acquisition of language fol- lows a pattern of development analogous to other kinds of biological devel- opment and is a result of a biological endowment specific to humans. The basis of the remark is in the fact that humans acquire language without instruction, while apes do not. (In fact, apes do not do so even with in- struction.) The remark is also based on the assumption that the communi- cation system used by apes is qualitatively different from human language; by “language ability” Chomsky means “human language ability.” The analogy to flightless birds implies that learning to speak a language is like learning to fly—it is a property of the species. A species of birds that does not fly simply does not have the biological endowment to do so. An excel- lent expansion of this answer may be found in some of the works listed the references for Chapter 1, including Anderson 2008 and Bickerton 1990.11. Song titles. Answers will vary. Some examples are: “Somethin’ ‘Bout a Truck” — Kip Moore “Why Ya Wanna” — Jana Kramer “Lemme See” — Usher5“(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” — The Rolling Stones “Gonna Make You Sweat” — C i.e., you can always translate, even if it means a lot of circumlocution. But there may be connotations, or shades of meaning that are not easy to translate, so translating le mot juste from French into ‘the right word’ doesn’t capture the connotation of it being the perfectly right word for the occasion.15. Pirahã. Answers will vary. Readings will show that the Pirahã people do have difficulties doing quantitative comparisons with numbers larger than 6 or 8. However, in their culture there is little need for dealing with quantities in a precisely discrete manner, so it is questionable whether the language is influencing the culture, or vice versa. The same is true for color 6terms, and the student reader may also learn that there are few if any kinship relation terms. However, in this case as well there may be a cul- tural explanation in that the people are so heavily intermarried that such terms probably wouldn’t make much sense.16. British English words for woods and woodlands. a. Answers will vary. b. Answers will vary. Students may discuss the meaning differences freely. The following definitions were found on dictionary.reference.com, except for the one marked with * which was found on www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary: bosky ‘covered with bushes, shrubs, and small trees; woody’ bosquet ‘a grove; thicket’ brush ‘a dense growth of bushes, shrubs, etc.; scrub; thicket’ bush ‘a large uncleared area thickly covered with mixed plant growth, trees, etc., as a jungle’ carr ‘fen; low land that is covered wholly or partly with water unless artificially drained and that usually has peaty alkaline soil and characteristic flora (as of sedges and reeds)’* coppice ‘a thicket of small trees or bushes; a small wood’ copse ‘a thicket of small trees or bushes; a small wood’ fen ‘low land covered wholly or partially with water; boggy land; a marsh’ firth ‘a long, narrow indentation of the seacoast’ forest ‘a large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush; woodland’ grove ‘a small wood or forested area, usually with no undergrowth’ heath ‘a tract of open and uncultivated land; wasteland overgrown with shrubs’ holt ‘a wood or grove; a wooded hill’ lea ‘a tract of open ground, esp. grassland; meadow’ moor ‘a tract of open, peaty, wasteland, often overgrown with heath, common in high latitudes and altitudes where drainage is poor; heath’ scrub ‘a large area covered with low trees and shrubs’ shaw ‘a small wood or thicket’ spinney ‘a small wood or thicket’ stand ‘the growing trees, or those of a particular species or grade, in a given area’ thicket ‘a thick or dense growth of shrubs, bushes, or small trees; a thick coppice’



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