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Maxwell.ppt

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Maxwell.ppt
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Chapters 32-33,Maxwell’s Equations & Electromagnetic Waves,Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields,Gauss’ law for magnetic field saying that magnetic monopole do not exist. 不存在磁单极,Induced magnetic field,Faraday’s law of induction shows that the change of magnetic flux (magnetic field) can produce electric field.,Can a changing electric flux (electric field) can induce magnetic field?,Maxwell introduce the displacement current , which can also produce magnetic field.,?,,Ampere’s law:,Since S1 and S2 have the same boundary L, the loop integrals will equal to each other,,Displacement Current,Electric Displacement Vector,Ampere-Maxwell Law:,Both the conductive current and the displacement current can induce magnetic field.,位移电流(磁场的变化)与传导电流均能激发磁场。,Maxwell’s equations,Maxwell’s equations are fundamental laws of the electromagnetic fields.,Electromagnetic Waves,Based on the above equations, Maxwell showed that the a beam of light is a traveling wave of electric and magnetic fields —— the electromagnetic wave.,All the laws of optics, such as reflection refraction, total reflection, and Brewster’s law can be obtained from the Maxwell’s equations. (Classical Electrodynamics),Inspired by Maxwell’s work, Hertz discovered the electromagnetic wave in laboratory.,The traveling electromagnetic wave,The electric and magnetic fields are always perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is traveling. The wave is transverse wave.,(2) The electric field is always perpendicular to the magnetic field.,(3) The cross product always gives the direction in which the wave travels.,(4) The fields always vary sinusoidally, and the fields vary with the same frequency and in phase with each other.,电场与磁场同频率,同相位,(5) The amplitude of the electric field is proportional to that of the magnetic field,(6) The wave speed is a constant.,By combing (5) and (6), we can obtain,坡印亭矢量,Energy Transport and the Poynting Vector,Energy density,Energy current density,Polarization (偏振),The plane containing the e
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