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植物学及园艺学英文版 botany and horticulture (1).ppt

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植物学及园艺学英文版 botany and horticulture (1).ppt
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HIS 31 CHAPTER 14 POWER POINT The Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment (1600-1800),,KEY TERMS,Neoplatonism – philosophy based on Plato’s ideas; one should search beyond appearances for true knowledge and the truth about nature and God could be found in abstract reasoning and be best expressed by mathematics Hermetic Doctrine – all matter contained the divine spirit which humans should seek to understand; sciences such as botany, chemistry, and metallurgy could unlock the secrets of nature Copernican Revolution – the change in belief from an earth-centered (geocentric) to a sun-centered (heliocentric) universe Heliocentric Model – theory that the sun is the center of the universe (and subsequently our solar system) Empirical Method – the use of observation and experiments based on sensory evidence to come to ideas or conclusions about nature Deductive Reasoning – deriving conclusions that logically flow from a premise (Rene Descartes’ theory) Cartesian Dualism – Descartes argued that there were two kinds of reality: mind (subjective thinking or experiencing) and body (objective physical matter) Scientific Revolution – 16th and 17th century methods of investigation and discoveries about nature based on observation and reason rather than tradition and authority Enlightenment – 18th century movement that stated human reason should determine understanding of the world and the rules of social life Philosophes – Enlightenment thinkers; French term for philosophers,ANALYZING QUESTION 1 List and analyze the differences between the new scientific views of the world and traditional medieval views. How did standards for ascertaining the “truth” differ between these two perspectives?,ANALYZING QUESTION 2 Analyze the beliefs and motives of three central figures in the Scientific Revolution. What barriers did they have to overcome to present their views?,SCIENTIFIC METHOD,ANALYZING QUESTION 4 In what ways did the Enlightenment threaten traditional views and authorities?,*NO
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