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第十三章 主谓一致.ppt

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第十三章 主谓一致.ppt
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第十三章 主谓一致,一、 指导原则主谓一致指“人称”和“数”方面的一致关系。对大多数人来说,往往会在掌握主语和随后的谓语动词之间的一致问题上遇到困难。一般情况下,主谓之间的一致关系由以下三个原则支配:语法一致原则 (grammatical concord)意义一致原则 (notional concord)就近原则 (principle of proximity),(一)语法一致原则,用作主语的名词词组中心词和谓语动词在单、复数形式上的一致,就是语法一致。也就是说,如果名词中心词是单数,动词用单数形式;如果名词中心词是复数,动词用复数形式。例如:This table is a genuine antique.Both parties have their own advantages.Her job has something to do with computers.,,She wants to go home.They are divorcing each other.Mary was watching herself in the mirror.The bird built a nest. Susan comes home every week-end.,(二)意义一致原则,有时,主语和谓语动词的一致关系取决于主语的单、复数意义,而不是语法上的单、复数形式,这样的一致关系就是意义一致。例如:Democratic government gradually take the place of an all-powerful monarchy.A barracks was attacked by the guerilla.Mumps is a kind of infectious disease.,,The United States is a developed country.It is the remains of a ruined palace.The archives was lost. This pair of trousers costs fifty dollars.,(三)就近原则,有时,谓语动词的单、复数形式决定于最靠近它的词语。 例如:Either my grandsons or their father is coming.No one except his daughters agree with him.Mary and her sisters are baking a cake. Neither Richard nor I am going.,二、以集合名词做主语的主谓一致问题,有些集合名词,如 committee,council,crew,crowd,family,gang,government,group,mob,staff,team, union等,在意义上是复数,但在语法形式上是单数,这类名词作主语的主谓一致问题往往遵循“语法一致”或“意义一致”原则。例如: The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. A council of elders governs the tribe. The present government is trying to control inflation. The school staff are expected to supervise school meals.,(一)通常作复数的集体名词,包括police,people, cattle, militia, vermin等,这些集体名词通常用作复数。 例如: The British police have only very limited powers. The militia were called out to guard the borderland. It seems the cattle on the sides of the dikes were the only living creatures in these desolate surroundings.,(二)通常作不可数名词的集体名词,通常作不可数名词的集体名词,包括poultry,foliage,machinery,equipment,furniture,merchandise等,这类名词后的动词用单数形式。 例如: Poultry is expensive at this time of year. That green foliage was restful.,,The merchandise has arrived undamaged. All the machinery in the factory is made in China. The suite of furniture he bought was of contemporary style. The equipment of the photographic studio was expensive.,三)可作单数也可作复数的集体名词,可作单数也可作复数的集体名词,包括audience, committee, crew, family, government,jury等。 例如: The audience was/were enthusiastic on the opening night of the play. The committee has/have decided to dismiss him. The jury is/are about to announce the winners. The government has/have discussed the matter for a long tim,三、a committee, etc of + 复数名词的主谓一致问题,如果主语是由a committee of /a panel of /a (the) board of +复数名词构成,随后的动词通常用单数。 例如: A committee of twelve men is to discuss the matter. A panel of experts has considered the situation. The board of managers is responsible for the firm.,四、以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题,英语可数名词的规则复数形式是在词尾加-s或-es,但是有一些以-s结尾的名词并不是可数名词。它们用法多样,造成了实际使用上的困难,以下详述了以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题。 (一)以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (二)以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (三)以-s结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (四)以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题 (五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题,(一)以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题,以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题,如:arthritis,bronchitis,diabetes,mumps,phlebitis,rickets,这类以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如: Arthritis causes great pain in the joints of the patient. The diabetes is a kind of chronic disease. Measles usually occurs in children. Phlebitis is a swollen condition of the blood vessels.,(二)以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题,以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如: Darts is basically a easy game. Marbles is not confined to children. Skittles is not fashionable nowadays. Draughts is not very difficult to learn,,但当Darts,Marbles等的意义为游戏器具而非游戏名称时,谓语动词通常用作复数。 例如: Three darts are thrown at each turn. All nine skittles were brought down by the good throw.,(三)以-s结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题,某些以-s结尾的地理名称,如果是国名,如the United States,the Netherlands等,因其是单一政治实体,所以谓语动词用作单数。 例如: The United States was hit by the Great Depression in 1930s'. In early January 1996 the Netherlands was hit by its worst storm since 1976.,但如果是群岛、山脉、海峡、瀑布等地理名称作主语,谓语动词用作复数。,例如: The West Indies are commonly divided into two parts. The Himalayas have a magnificent variety of plant. The Straits of Gibraltar have not lost their strategic importance. The Niagara Falls are perhaps the most splendid waterfall in the world.,(四)以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题,某些以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语时,如physics,mathematics,mechanics, optics, acoustics, politics statistics, economics, linguistics, athletics等, 谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如: Physics is a fundamental subject in science. The third world economics is promising.,,Acoustics studies the science of sound. Mathematics is an interesting subject. Athletics is a required course for students of all grades.,但如果这类名词表示学科以外的其它含义,可作复数用。,例如: Athletics have been greatly encouraged at this college. The acoustics of the new concert hall are perfect. The economics of the project are still at issue.,(五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题,A.以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名称作主语英语中有一些通常以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名词,如glasses, pincers,pliers,scissors, shorts,suspenders,trousers等,这类名词做主语,如果不带“一把”、“一副”等单位词,谓语动词通常用复数。 例如: Mary's glasses are new. John's trousers are black.,如果带有单位词, 则由单位词决定动词的单、复数形式。,例如: One pair of pincers isn't enough. Two pairs of scissors are missing from my tool box.,B.其他以-s结尾的名词,英语中还有一些以- s结尾的名词,如archives,arms,clothes, contents, eaves, fireworks, goods, minutes, morals, remains stairs, suburbs, thanks,wages这类名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。 例如: The archives of the country are kept in the Department of Security.,,The contents of the book are most amusing. High wages often result in high prices. My thanks are sincere.,五、如果句子的主语是并列结构,其主谓一致问题通常遵循以下原则:,(一)由and/both.and连接的并列主语的主谓一致问题 (二)由or/nor/either.or连接的并列主语的主谓一致问题 (三)主语 + as much as,etc的主谓一致问题,(一)由and/both.and连接的并列主语的主谓一致问题,由and/both.and连接的并列结构作主语,可根据主语的意义决定谓语动词的单、复数形式。 例如: Pancakes and syrup is a tasty breakfast. The number and diversity of British newspaper is considerable.,,Good and bad taste are inculcated by example. Fish and chips are getting very expensive. A truck and a car were in the ditch. Both Cathy and her daughter Lida have gone fishing in Canada.,当and连接的并列名词词组带有each,every,或者many a 等限定词时,谓语动词通常用单数,例如: Each man and each woman there is asked to help. Every flower and every bush is to be cut down. Every change of season, every change of weather, indeed every hour of the day, produces some change in the magical hues and shapes of these mountains. Many a boy was disappointed after seeing the film.,(二)由or/nor/either.or连接的并列主语的主谓一致问题,由or,nor,either.or, neither.nor,not only.but also连接的并列结构作主语,随后的动词形式通常按照“就近原则”处理。 例如: Neither Lucy nor Carol has any money left. Neither sleet nor snow stops him from driving his new Mercedes-Benz. Either Tina or Carol is sure to know the answer.,,Neither my father nor my brothers are likely to be at theater. Neither the Kansas coach nor the players were confident of victory. Not only one, but all of us are hoping to be there. Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been stolen.,(三)主语 + as much as,etc的主谓一致问题,当主语后面跟有由as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等引导的从属结构,或跟有由as well as, in addition to ,with, along with, together with, except等引导的词组时, 其后的动词形式取决主语的形式。 例如: The vessel, with its entire crew and cargo was lost. The ocean, as well as the gulf and the bay, provides good fishing. John, rather than his roommates, is to blame.,,Hugh,as well as his two sisters, is vacationing in Wyoming this summer. Some of the employees as much as the manager were responsible for the failure. My husband,more than anyone else in the family, is longing to go there again. Billy, together with his sisters, was wounded in the accident. No one except two girls was late for school.,六、以表示数量概念的名词词组作主语的主谓一致问题,数量概念分两类:一类是确定数量,如 two years, five seconds,three kilos,等,另一类是非确定数量,如all of., some of., none of.。如果用这类表示数量概念的名词词组作主语,会产生主谓一致问题。 (一)以表示确定数量的名词词组作主语的主谓一致问题 (二)以表示非确定数量的名词词组作主语的主谓一致问题,(一)以表示确定数量的名词词组作主语,当主语为表示确定数量的名词词组时,如果数量概念被看做一个整体,动词用单数,如果被看做组成该数量的个体,动词用复数。 例如: The treasurer considered that twenty dollars was not too much to ask. “Two months is too short a time,“ General manager warned, “we must hurry up.“,,Three weeks is needed to complete the task. There were six silver dollars in each of the stockings. Three pints is not enough to get him drunk. A total of 50,000 new bicycles was registered in the year.,如果作主语的名词词组是由“分数/百分数+ of”词组构成,其动词形式 取决于of词组中名词的类别。,例如: Two-thirds of the people present is against the plan. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is covered by sea. Over twenty percent of the city was destroyed in the war. Forty-five percent of the doctors were woman.,两数相减或相除,谓语动词用单数;两数相加或相乘,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。,例如: Sixty minus seventeen leaves forty-three. Forty-two divided by six is seven. Six and eight makes/make fourteen. Six times eight is/are forty-eight.,,如果主语由“one in/one out of + 复数名词“ 构成,在正式语体中,动词用单数。 例如: One in ten students has passed the examination. One out of twelve bottles was left intact.,(二)以表示非确定数量的名词词组作主语的主谓一致问题,如果主语由 “a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of +名词“或由“a kind/sort/type of, this kind/sort/type of+名词” 构成,谓语动词通常用单数。 例如: A panel of us has decided to hire a boat and travel through Holland by canal. A pile of apple logs was set beside the hearth.,,A portion of reports is deceiving. This kind of cars is rather expensive. This type of women is dangerous. That type of machines is up-to-date.,如果主语是由“many a +名词“ 或“more than one +名词“构成,随后的动词遵循“语法一致”原则,用单数,例如: Many a person in these circumstances has hoped for a long break. Many a man has his own responsibility. More than one student has failed the exam. More than one ship was lost this year.,,如果主语是all of, some of,none of, half of, most of,lots of,loads of ,plenty of,等表示非确定数量的名词词组,谓语动词的单、复数形式根据 of词组中名词类别而定。 例如: Most of the money was recovered by Deputy Player. All of the cargo was lost. Some of the books were badly torn. None of my friends ever come to see me.,,Half of the building was destroied during the war. Half of the students are eager to leave now. Lots of people are waiting outside. Loads of apples have been distributed among the children. Plenty of water was prepared for irrigation.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
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