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第十二章_非谓语动词.ppt

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第十二章_非谓语动词.ppt
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第十二章 非谓语动词,不定式、动名词和分词,这三种形式合称为非谓语动词。他们都具有原来动词的某些特征,如可带宾语;有时态、语态的变化;用not否定;用状语修饰等。但他们都不能单独作谓语,因而又称动词的非谓语形式。现对不定式、动名词和分词分别作说明。,一、不定式,1、不定式的形式 不定式由to加动词原形构成(在某些情况下可以省略to)。以动词write为例,不定式可以有以下几种形式:,,1)不定式的时态不定式的时态取决于不定式与谓语动词动作发生的先后顺序:同时或几乎同时发生,或在谓语动词动作后发生,使用不定式的现在式:谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式的动作正在进行,则用进行式;不定式的动作先于谓语动词动作发生时用完成式。Young people nowadays love to hear pop songs.如今的年轻人喜欢听流行歌曲。I didn't expect you to be waiting for me here我没想到你在这里等我。I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble.对不起,给你添了这么多麻烦。,2)不定式的被动式当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,该不定式一般要用被动形式。各种形式的动词不定式均不能在句中独立做谓语,就不可能有自己语法上的主语。在通常情况下,我们可以推断某个词实际上与不定式有逻辑上的主谓关系,这个词为逻辑主语。,I didn’t expect to be invited. 我并没指望受到邀请。She ought to be told about it. 这件事该告诉她。Nothing seems to have been forgotten. 好像没什么被遗忘掉。The book is said to have been translated into many languages该书据说已译成多种语言。,对比,He ordered the guns to be fired.He ordered the soldiers to fire their guns.他命令(士兵)开火。Do you have any clothes to be washed?(让说话人或其他人洗)Do you have any clothes to wash?(句中主语自己洗),当名词或代词作不定式的逻辑主语时,构成了逻辑上的主谓关系,常用不定式的主动语态表示被动的意义。I still have some exercises to do.我还有练习要做。Give him some books to read.给他几本书看。,注意事项,(1)在there be句型中,主语可用动词不定式修饰。如果句中主语为不定式动作的接受者,常常可用不定式的主动语态代替被动语态。用主动语态的重点在于做动作的人,而用被动语态的重点在于动作本身,两者在含义上没有本质的差别。eg. There are still many important things to take care of ( to be taken care of). 仍有一些重要的事情要做。,(2)但是,如果是把to do 或to be done用在something, anything或nothing之后,则含义有很大区别。There is nothing to do.无事可干。There is nothing to be done.没有办法了。,(3)若所用不定式为“动词+介词”构成的短语动词,介词不能省略。eg. You are pleasant to talk with. (4)take作“花费”, “需要”解时,其后的动词不定式总是用主动的形式。eg. The book took me two years to write.,3)不定式的否定式不定式的否定式是由not或never加不定式构成。 He decided not to go with us.他决定不和我们同去。I wished never to see him again.我希望永远不再见到他。,2、不定式的基本用法,1)作主语不定式可在句中作主语,但在多数情况下为避免句子出现头重脚轻的不合理结构,常用it作不定式的形式主语,而将作真正主语的不定式短语后置。To err is human;to forgive is divine。犯错误是人之常情,宽恕才是难能可贵的。It is necessary to master a foreign language.掌握一门外语是很有必要的。,It's a great pleasure as well as a great honor to be present at the meeting.出席这次会议真令人高兴,也很荣幸。It takes me about two hours to go to school by bus.我坐公交车上学需要约两个小时。,注意: 介词for,of 短语作不定式的逻辑主语。It’s not easy for me to learn cooking.对我来说学做饭并不是一件容易的事。It’s very kind of you to give me so much help.非常感谢你给了我这么多帮助。,2)作宾语 He refused to co-operate. 他拒绝合作。 I can’t afford to buy a car. 我买不起小汽车。 They found it difficult to give the classroom a thorough cleaning in time.他们发现很难及时把教室打扫干净。 He thought it a pity not to have invited her.他很遗憾没有邀请她。(本句中it为形式宾语,不定式短语是真正的宾语。),常用不定式作宾语的动词有:afford, agree, ask, begin, consider, claim, consent, decide, demand, expect, fail, forget, like, hate, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, mean, need, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, regret, remember, want, etc.,注意:有些及物动词如show, teach,decide, forget 等可带连接代词或连接副词+不定式的形式作宾语补足语: Can you tell me how to get to the train station? 请问去火车站怎么走?I don’t know whether to answer his e-mail. 我不知道要不要回他的电子邮件。Ask him where to park the car.问他哪里可停车。I wonder who to invite.我想知道会邀请谁。,常用的可用“疑问词+不定式”结构作宾语的动词有:inquire, discover, forget, decide, know, learn, remember, see, settle, think, wonder 若用作宾语的不定式短语较长,而其后又有宾语补语时,常常在宾语的位置上用一个it作形式宾语,而把作宾语的不定式短语后移。eg. I found it difficult to understand him.We do not think it proper for you to say such a thing.,3)作表语To see is to believe. 眼见为实。(主语和表语同为不定式,主语表示条件,表语表示结果。)His wish was to become an artist.他的愿望是成为一名艺术家。(不定式作表语常表示预定要发生的动作或表示未来的可能性或假设。),4)作定语I have nothing to say. 我无话可说。He is always the first to come and the last to leave.他总是第一个到,最后一个离开。若不定式为不及物动词,其后须加结构和意义上所需的介词。Would you please give me some paper to write on? 请你给我一些纸写字,好吗? He is looking for a place to live in。 (=a place in which to live) 他在找住处。,5)作同位语We didn’t receive the order to start the attack.我们没有收到发起进攻的命令。He followed the doctor’s instruction to examine the broken leg他按照医生的指示检查断腿。,6)作状语She went to town to do shopping yesterday.她昨天进城购物去了。(目的)People are never too old to learn.活到老,学到老。(结果)She shuddered to think of her bitter past.她想起辛酸的过去就不寒而栗。(原因),He stood aside for her to pass. (目的)What have I done to offend you? (结果)The children felt happy to be with their parents. (原因)She would be glad to hear the news. (条件),7)作独立成分To tell the truth,I don’t like the style of the skirt.说实在的,我不喜欢这裙子的款式。To begin with,the story is not interesting.首先,这个故事没有什么趣味性。,8)作宾语补足语或主语补足语The teacher asked the students to hand in their exercises.老师叫学生们交作业。(宾补)He is said to be from Shanghai.据说他是上海人。(主补)The country is known to be rich in natural resources(=It is known that the country is rich in natural resources.)众所周知这个国家的自然资源非常丰富。(主补),注意: 感官动词 feel,hear,see,watch,notice和使役动词make,let,have等后跟不定式作宾补时,不带to。I heard her sing.我听见她唱歌了。(宾补)His father made him go to bed early.他父亲强迫他早早上床睡觉。(宾补),3、关于不定式的一些其他用法,1)为了避免重复,仅用to取代整个不定式:Perhaps I’ll go to Europe this summer;I’d very much like to.(=to go to Europe)今年夏天,我将去欧洲;我非常想去。I don’t swim much now, but I used to a lot (=to swim)现在我不怎么游泳了。但我以前经常游。Are you and Betty getting married? we hope to (=to get married)你和佩蒂要结婚了吗?我们希望能。,2) 主、被动不定式的用法:I have a lot of work to do this week.这个星期我有许多事要做。(不能说I have a lot of work to be done)I've got reports to write.我要写几份报告。(不能说I’ve got reports to be written)如果不定式的动作由主语完成,用主动;与此相反,或完成不定式动作的行为者不明确,则用被动态。These designs are to be revised as soon as possible这些设计图必须尽快修改。These T-shirts and dresses are to be cleaned这些T恤、衣服该洗了。,3) 表达意义相同,主、被动都可以用的不定式:There is a lot of work to do/to be done有许多工作要做。There are some designs to revise/to be revised.有许多设计要修改。to do和to revise可以理解为for me/us to do;for me / us to revise。,4 ) something,anything和nothing之后的不定式可用主动,也可以用被动,但意义不同:There is nothing to do.没事可做。(意为生活单调。)There is nothing to be done.没法用了。(意为得买新的了。),5)有些被动不定式如:to be seen,to be found和to be congratulated常见于be动词之后。The money was nowhere to be found.这笔钱哪儿也找不到。He was nowhere to be seen.他人不见踪影。The newly-married couple are to be congratulated.向新婚夫妇道喜。但blame习惯上不用被动不定式。“I’m to blame for the accident,”said the taxi driver. 这位出租车司机说:“这次事故是我的过错。”,6) 不定式的逻辑主语由of和for引出。但两者在用法上有区别:用形式主语it,不定式作实际主语的句型中,若表语形容词与不定式逻辑主语关系密切,说明其特征或属性的,用of; 反之仅表示一种连接关系,则用for。如:It was very clever of her to think of that.她想到那个,真是聪明。It‘s easy for the young to fall into bad habits but very difficult to break away from them.年轻人很容易形成坏习惯,而且很难改掉。,二、动名词,1、动名词的形式:动词原形加 -ing。以动词write为例,动名词的主要形式如下:,2、动名词的基本用法,1)作主语(动名词常被看作是单数不可数名词,作主语时谓语用第三人称单数)Seeing is believing.眼见为实。lt is nice talking to you.和你谈话很愉快。( it作形式主语,动名词短语作真正主语。),2) 作宾语:动名词在动词或介词后面作宾语Would you mind opening the window?请把窗户打开好吗?I have got used to living here.我已经习惯住这儿了。(动名词作介词宾语。)He couldn’t stand being treated like that.他无法忍受那样待他。I apologize for not having come earlier.我没有早点来,向你道歉。She hates his staying out late.她不喜欢他深夜不归。,3)作表语(多与系动词be 连用。如果句中的主、表语同为动词时,要注意两个动词在形式上的一致。)The problem now is getting to know the needs of the students.现在的问题是去了解学生的需要。Reading is learning.读书就是学习。(reading作主语learning作表语),注意:不定式作表语强调具体的、一次性的、有待实现的动作; 动名词作表语泛指动作或不强调动作,只着眼于动作的名称。My duty was to take care of the baby while she was out. (具体工作)My favorite work is teaching English.(一件工作),4)作定语(通常位于名词之前,作前置定语,表示被修饰名词的用途或性能。)My grandfather always brings with him a pair of hearing aid.我祖父总是带着助昕器。There is a reading room in our department.我们系有个阅览室。The operating table is very clean.手术台很干净。,5)作补语This is called robbing Peter to pay Paul.这叫做拆东墙补西墙。,3.关于动名词与不定式用法的区别,remember, forget, stop, go on和regret,这些动词后面既可按动名词,也可接不定式,但表示的意义不同。如:,1) remember+动名词表示记得做过什么; remember+不定式表示记得要做什么。I remember locking the door when I left the office.我记得离开办公室时我锁上了门。Remember to lock the door as you left.离开办公室时记住要锁门。,2) forget+动名词表示忘记做过什么; forget+不定式表示忘记要做什么。“I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall,” said the tourist.那位游客说:“我永远不会忘记万里长城给我留下的印象。”She is always forgetting to write to me.她总是忘记给我写信。,3) regret+动名词表示后悔做了某事:regret+不定式表示对要做的事情感到遗憾。Afterwards he regretted having told them about it.后来他为曾把此事告诉他们而感到后悔。(=…he regretted that he had told them about it )we regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the opportunity,to get the job.我们很遗憾地告诉你,我们无法为你提供这个工作的机会。,4)stop+动名词表示停止做某事;而stop+不定式则表示停下来开始做另一件事。Stop smoking!别抽烟!Let’s stop (for a couple of minutes) to have a cup of coffee,shall we?稍停片刻,喝杯咖啡。好吗?,5)go on+动名词表示持续原来在做的动作;而go on+不定式表示接着开始新的动作。Go on trying until you succeed.继续试下去,直到成功。I shall now go on to deal with the gerund.我现在接着要讲的是动名词问题。,6)1ike+动名词表示喜欢;like+不定式则表示选择,习惯。I like fishing. 我喜爱钓鱼。I like walking along the seaside.我喜欢在海边走走。I like to get up early so that l can get plenty of work done before lunch.我喜欢(习惯)早起,这样使我能在午饭前完成许多工作。like用于否定,接不定式表示不愿意做某事。I don’t like to disturb you.我不想打扰你。,7) try+动名词表示“尝试”;而try+不定式表示“尽力”。Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door.如果前门敲不开,试试(敲)后门。,8) afraid of+动名词和afraid+不定式两者无多大区别;但是因顾忌可能的结果,而不愿(怕)做某事时;在谈及无法预料可能会发生的害怕事时,后接动名词。I’m afraid to take a plane/of taking a plane。我害怕坐飞机。I am afraid of offending her.我怕得罪她。(只能用动名词)I am afraid of crashing.我害怕(飞机)坠毁。(同上),三、分词,1. 分词的形式分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。现在分词由动词原形+ing构成,过去分词由动词原形+ed构成。以write为例,过去分词只有一种形式即written;现在分词的各种形式如下:,2、 分词的基本用法,现在分词与过去分词在句中的作用基本相同。但现在分词语态表示主动;时态表示动作正在进行。而过去分词语态表示被动;时态表示动作已经完成。分词的主要功能如下:,1) 作表语(相当于一个形容词,动作意义减弱,表示一种状态或主语的性质和特征。) V+ing表示句中主语所具有的特征 V+ed 表示主语所处的状态The football match was exciting.这场足球赛激动人心。She looks disappointed.她显得很失望。,2)作定语(被修饰的名词时分词的发出者时用现在分词,是动作的承受者时用过去分词)He is a promising young man.他是个很有前途的青年。The wounded soldier was taken off to the hospital.这个伤员被送往医院。the boring speaker 令人厌烦的演讲者the bored student 感到厌烦的学生,分词短语作定语时通常后置,起定语从句作用。A little child learning to walk(=who is learning to walk)0ften falls.学走路的小孩常跌倒。What’s the language spoken in that country (=which is spoken in that country)?那个国家讲的是什么语言?,3)作状语 分词或分词短语用作状语时,一般表示动作发生的时间、条件、原因、结果或伴随等情况。分词的主体,一般就是句子的主语。现在分词的动作与谓语动词的动作同时或几乎同时发生;谓语动词表示的是动作或状态;而分词则对动词加以修饰或作为陪衬。过去分词作状语时,句子的主语是分词动作的承受者而非发出者。如果分词的动作先于谓语的动作,分词需要用完成时。,We sat on the sofa watching TV.我们坐在长沙发上看电视。 The students came out of the classroom laughing and chatting.学生们从教室里出来又说又笑。 Following Tom,they started to run.他们跟在汤姆后面开始跑。,They walked on the country road,followed by a dog.他们走在乡间小路上,后面跟着一条狗。 Seen from the tower,the town looks very beautiful.从塔上看这座城市非常美。 Not having received an answer, I decided to write him another letter .由于没接到回信,我决定再给他写一封信。,分词或分词短语作状语时,如果动作的主语与句子的主语不一致,可以带上自己的逻辑主语,构成分词独立主格(结构)。分词短语,分词独立主格作状语,起状语从句作用。 The shower being over,we continued to play games outside阵雨过后我们继续在外面做游戏。 All things considered,her composition is better than yours各方面考虑起来,她的作文比你的写得好。,Peter came in,rainwater coming down from his clothes and hair彼得走进来,雨水顺着他的衣服和头发往下流。 A new technique worked out,the yields as a whole increased by 27%一项新技术研制出来,产量总体增加了27%。,介词with常被用来引导独立结构。例如:With the temperature falling so rapidly,we could not continue the experiment由于温度下降得太快,我们无法继续实验。,练习,1. _________, the spaceman saw the Great Wall of China A) While flew in the spaceship B) While flying in the spaceship C) If flew in the spaceship D) To fly in the spaceship 答案B。,2. The children stood on the pavement,___________. A) watching the buses coming and going B) watched the buses coming and going C) when watched the buses coming and going D) when to wash the buses coming and going 答案A。,3. __________,we forgot our one o’clock class. A) Absorbing in our conversation B) Though absorbed in our conversation C) Absorbed in our conversation D) To absorb in our conversation答案C。be absorbed in sth. 全神贯注,吸引…的注意,4.__________, we stopped to look at the map. A) Knowing not which road to take B) Not knowing which road to take C) Not knew which road to take D) Not to be known which to take 答案B。,5. ________,he had an accident on the icy road A) Although driving carefully B) Even though drove carefully C) Though driven carefully D) Although to drive carefully 答案A。,6. He locked the door, _________. A) thus made sure no one would interrupt him B) thus making sure no one would interrupt him C) though made sure no one would interrupt him D) although to make sure no one would interrupt him 答案B。,7. _________, land may not be ruined A) When giving proper care B) Unless giving proper care C) Given proper care D) To give proper care 答案C。given假设,如果。,8. Heat butter in the frying pan_______. A) until melted B) until melting C) while melting D) when melting 答案A。9. They were______ to fall asleep. A) so excited B) so exciting C) too excited D) too exciting 答案C。,10. I’m used ______ to early. A) get up B) getting up C) got up D) be getting up答案B。used to do 过去常常be used to doing 习惯于be used to do 被动,11. I prefer singing_______. A) for dancing B) than dancing C) to dance D) to dancing 答案D。prefer … to …prefer to do… rather than do…prefer doing … to doing…,12. I can not but _________. A) to keep quiet B) keep quiet C) keeping quiet D) to be keeping quiet答案B。否定词/疑问词+but相当于否定 = that not13. _______ there before, he got lost soon. A) Having not been B) Having been not C) Not having been D) Having been 答案C。,14. We ______ for quite a long time. A) were keeping waited B) were kept waited C) were keeping waiting D) were kept waiting 答案D。 15. ______ in 1192, the bridge is over 700 years old. A) Built B) Being built C) Building D) To be built 答案A。,16. Because of air pollution being greatly reduced,this city is still _______. A) a good place in which to live B) a good place to live C) a good place to live in D) good in living in 答案C。,17. To get an education,__________. A) one must work hard B) working hard is one of the important requirements C) requirement is needed to work hard D) working hard is needed 答案A。18. ‘‘Where did he go?’’ ‘‘He went to another store_______. A) buy shoes B) to buy shoes C) for buying shoes D) buying shoes 答案B。,19. I’d like _____ me tomorrow. A) you helping B) you help C) you to help D) you will help 答案C。 20. I’ll have him _______ at once. A) to do it B) that he will do it C) doing it D) do it答案D。have sb. do sthhave sth. done,21. He never forces us _______. A) doing something B) doing anything C) to do anything D) do something 答案C。22. He tried hard to avoid_____ that man. A) to meet B) meeting C) meet D) to have met 答案B。Admit, avoid, consider, keep, finish, mind 等后用动名词作宾语。,23.You’d better ________ first. A) call him B) to call him C) calling him D) to telephone 答案A。24. There is no _______ what may happen. A) know B) knowing C) to know D) known 答案B。,25. We had a very hard time ______ some of the problem. A) discussing B) to discuss C) of discussing D) discuss 答案A。have a time (in) doing sth.度过…时间做某事,have a hard time doing 费劲做… 26. We consider _______ very helpful. A) him B) him to try C) him to be D) him being 答案C。,27. They spent their time _________ basketball. A) to play B) play C) played D) playing 答案D。 28. The duties of the secretary are to receive visitor,________. A) opening the mail,she types letters B) to open the mail and typing letters C) to open the mail and to type letters D) opening the mall and to type letters 答案C。,29. I suggest_______ Peter to help us. A) you to ask B) you ask C) asking D) to ask 答案C。suggest +doing表示暗示,间接表明,意味着。30. We are looking forward _______ you soon. A) to see B) to seeing C) see D) to be going to see 答案B。,
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