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1Literature terms1Epic : a long narrative poem telling about the deeds of a great hero and reflecting the values of the society from which it originated. Many epics were drawn from an oral tradition and were transmitted by song and recitation before they were written down.(史诗)2Romance: It was a long composition, sometimes in verse, sometimes in prose, describing the life and adventures of a noble hero.(传奇文学) 3Heroic Couplet: the rhymed couplet of iambic pentameter. (英雄双韵体)4Iambic Pentameter: is the most common English meter, in which each foot contains an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable. (五音步抑扬格 )meter 格律 foot 音步5ballad: is a story told in song, usually in 4-line stanzas, with the second and fourth lines rhymed.(歌谣)6Sonnet: It is a lyric poem of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, restricted to a definite rhyme scheme.(十四行诗) 7Blank verse: is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme.(无韵诗)8Soliloquy: an utterance or discourse by a person who is talking to himself/ herself or is disregardful of or oblivious to any hearers present (often used as a device in a drama to disclose a character’s innermost thoughts); 2. the act of talking while or as if alone(独白)9Classicism: Aesthetic attitudes and principles manifested in the art, architecture, and literature of ancient Greece and Rome and characterized by emphasis on form, simplicity, proportion, and restraint. Classicism was popular in Europe in the 18th century.(古典主义)10Neo-classicism: neo-classicism imitated the characteristics of Roman writers, including Horace, Virgil, Cicero, etc., in the days of Augustus. They tried to make English literature conform to rules and principles established by the great Roman and Greek classical writers. In writing 2plays, they used rhyme and couplet instead of blank verse, observed the trinity --- the unity of time, place and action.(新古典主义)11An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used.(书信体小说)12Sentimentalism is one of the important trends in English literature of the middle and later decades of the 18th century. It justly criticized the cruelty of the capitalist relations and the gross social injustices brought about by the bourgeoisrevolutions. It embraces a pessimistic outlook and blames reason and the Industrial Revolution, marked by a sincere sympathy for the poverty-stricken ,expropriated peasants.(感伤主义)Romanticism: Romanticism is a literary trend. It prevails in England during the period 1798-1832. romanticists expressed the ideology and sentiment of those classes and social strata who were discontent with and opposed to the development of capitalism. They split into two groups because of the different attitudes toward the capitalist society.(浪漫主义)Ode is a lyric poem of some length that honors an individual, a thing, a trait dealing with a lofty theme in a dignified manner. The form dates back to classical times and is originally intended to be sung at festivals or in plays. Brief Outline of British Literature: works1. Early and Medieval English Literature1) The Anglo-Saxon Period (449-1066)National epic: The Song of Beowulf2) The Anglo-Norman Period (1066-1350)Arthurian Romance: Sir Gawain andGreen Knight3) Geoffrey Chaucer1340-1400:Messenger of Humanism The first important realistic writer “Father” of English poetry The Canterbury Tales the wife of Bath(巴斯夫人), the Knight(骑士), the Pardoner(卖赎罪卷者) , 3the Nun’s Priest(尼姑的教士), the Prologue(序诗).The Romaunt of the Rose 《玫瑰传奇》The Book of the Duchess 《悼公爵夫人》 Troilus and Criseyde 《 特罗伊洛斯和克瑞西德 》Thomas MaloryMorte d’Arthur (Death of Arthur)《亚瑟之死》William LanglandPiers the Plowman[Boccaccio 薄伽丘:Decameron《十日谈》Ovid 奥维德 : 《爱的艺术》 《变形记 》]2. The English Renaissance (16 century)Thomas More UtopiaChristopher Marlowe 克里斯托弗·马洛First person used blank verse Death of Arthur 《亚瑟之死》Tamburlaine the Great «帖木儿大帝»The Jew of Malta «马尔他岛的犹太人» The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus«浮士德博士的悲剧» Hero and Leander《 海洛和利安得 》The Passionate Shepherd to His Love《 牧羊人的恋歌 》William Shakespeareone of the founders of realism in world literature as well as in English literatureVenus and Adonis《维纳斯与安东尼斯》The Rape of Lucrece《鲁克里斯受辱记》4Four tragedies: Hamlet《哈姆雷特》Othello 《奥塞罗》King Lear 《 李尔王》 Macbeth《麦克白》Four comedies:A Midsummer Night’s Dream 《仲夏夜之梦》The Merchant of Venice《威尼斯商人》As You Like It《皆大欢喜》Twelfth Night 《第十二夜 》Ben Jonson 本·琼森first poet- laureate after Shakespeare the most eminent writer for the Elizabethan stagethe greatest dramatist after Shakespearethe founder of the so-called “Comedy of Humors”, Every Man in His Humor《人人高兴》Every Man Out of His Humor《人人扫兴》Volpone 《 福尔蓬奈 》 the Fox《狐狸》The Alchemist 《炼金术士》Sir Thomas Wyatt 托马斯· 怀亚特Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey 亨利·霍华德· 萨里伯爵Sir Philip Sidney 西德尼Astrophel and Stella《爱星者和星星》Arcadia 《阿卡狄亚》The Defence of Poetry《诗辩》Edmund Spenser 埃德蒙· 斯宾塞the Poet’s poet , a model of poetical artgreatest non-dramatic poet of his timefirst master of English verseThe Shepherd’s Calendar 《牧人月历》Amoretti 《爱情小诗》The Fairy Queen《仙后 》Francis Bacon 弗朗西斯 · 培根5The father of experimental philosophyThe most important prose writer of the Elizabethan Age the first English essayistthe founder of English materialist philosophy.The Advancement of Learning《学术的进展》The Novum Organum (The New Instrument) 《新工具 》The New Atlantis《新大西岛》The Essays 《散文集》(Of Studies)3. The Period of The English Bourgeois Revolution (17 century)John Milton 约翰·弥尔顿the smartest man in Europe a master of the blank verseParadise Lost《 失乐园 》 Paradise Regained《复乐园》 Samson Agonistes《 力士参孙 》 Lycidas 《 利西达斯 》Comus《 科玛斯 》 a masque《 假面剧 》John Bunyan 约翰·班扬Pilgrim’s Progress 《天路历程》 Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinner《功德无量》The Life and Death of Mr. Badman《恶人先生的生平和死亡》 《贝德曼先生的一生》The Holy War《 神圣战争》John Donne 约翰·邓恩Founder of Metaphysical poetry 选学派诗人Songs and Sonnets《歌与短歌》Holy sonnet《圣十四行诗》Divine poem《神圣诗歌》Elegies and Satire《挽歌与讽刺诗》Meditations《冥想》/ 《沉思》4. The Age of Enlightenment (18 century) Alexander Pope 亚历山大·蒲柏Essay on Criticism《论批评》6The Rape of the Lock《夺发记》Joseph Addison 约瑟夫·艾狄生 andRichard Steel 理查德·斯蒂尔The Tatler and The SpectatorDaniel Defoe 丹尼尔·笛福18 世纪启蒙时期现实主义小说的奠基人Robinson CrusoeCaptain Singleton《辛格顿船长》Colonel Jacque《杰克上校 》Moll Flanders《茉尔·弗兰德丝》A Journal of the Plague Year《瘟疫记事》Jonathan Swift 乔纳森·斯威夫特One of the greatest masters of English prosea master satirist Gulliver’s TravelsA Tale of a Tub 《一个木桶的故事 》The Battle of Books《 书的战争》The Drapier’s Letters《一个麻布商的书信》A Modest Proposal《一个小小的建议 》 Samuel Richardson 塞谬尔 ·理查逊Pamela 《 帕美勒 》Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady《 克拉丽莎 》The History of Sir Charles Grandison 《 查尔斯 ·葛兰底森爵士传 》Henry Fielding 亨利·菲尔丁最早的现实主义小说理论家现实主义小说奠基人7Tom Jones《汤姆˙琼斯》Don Quixote in England《唐吉诃德在英国》Pasqin 《巴斯昆 》 The Historical Register for the Year 1736 《一七三六年历史记事》The Tragedy of Tragedies or The Life and Death of Tom Thumb the Great《悲剧的悲剧:或伟人汤姆传》Joseph Andrews《约瑟夫˙安德鲁斯的经历》Jonathan Wild the Great《大伟人乔纳森˙魏尔德》Amelia《阿米丽亚》Samuel Johnson 塞缪尔·约翰逊As Lexicographer or The Dictionary of the English Language 英语词典Oliver Goldsmith 戈德史密斯Ano velist and poet belongs to the school of Sentimentalism She Stoops to Conquer《屈伸求爱》 The Vicar of Wakefield 《威克菲尔德牧师传》The Traveler and The Deserted VillageThe Citizen of the World《世界公民》 Richard Brinsley Sheridan 谢里丹The School for Scandal 《造谣学校》Comedy of Manners 风尚喜剧 Thomas Gray 格雷-------- sentimentalismOn the Death of a Favorite Cat 《爱猫之死》Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard 《墓园挽歌 》The Progress of Poetry 《诗的发展》8The Correspondence of Thomas Gray《格雷书信集 》William Blake 威廉 布莱克Tiger 《老虎》Songs of Innocence《天真之歌》Songs of Experience《经验之歌》The Marriage of Heaven and Hell《天堂与地狱的婚姻 》Robert Burns-罗伯特 彭斯--- pre-romanticismthe most famous poets of the peasants in the worldA red red rose 《我的爱人像朵红红的玫瑰 》 5. Romanticism in England (19 century)PoetryWilliam Wordsworth 华兹华斯The prelude《 序曲 》Lyrical Ballads 《抒情歌谣集》I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud《 我好似一朵流云独自漫步 》To the 《 咏水仙 》S. T. Coleridge 柯林律治The Rime of the Ancient Mariner《古舟子咏》 《 古水手谣》Kubla khan 《忽必烈汗 》George Gordon Byron 乔治 戈登 拜伦One of the most excellent representatives of English Romanticismone of the most influential poets of the timeHours of Idleness 《闲暇时刻 》Child Harold’s Pilgrimage 《恰尔德·哈罗德游记 》.9Don Juan《唐璜》She Walks in Beauty Percy Bysshe Shelley 雪莱Prometheus Unbound 《解放了的普罗米修斯》Queen Mab 《仙后麦布 》Address to the Irish People《告爱尔兰人书》The Revolt of Islam 《伊斯兰的反叛》The Masque of Anarchy《暴政的行列》The Cenci《钦契一家》A Defence of Poetry 《诗辩》The Necessity of Atheism《无神论的必要性》Ode to the West Wind10. To a Skylark《致云雀 》John Keats 济慈Lamia《莱米亚》Endymion《恩底弥翁》On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer《初读查普曼译荷马史诗》Isaabella 《伊莎贝拉》The Eve of St. Agnes《圣 ·爱格尼斯节前夕》Hyperion《赫坡里昂》On a Grecian Urn 《希腊古瓮颂》To Autumn《秋颂》On Melancholy《忧郁颂 》To a Nightingale 《夜莺颂》Prose fictionWalter Scott 司各特10the first novelist to recreate the pastWaverleyOld MoralityRob RoyThe Heart of MidlothianIvanhoe《 艾 凡 赫 》Rob RoyNovelJane Austen 简·奥斯丁Northanger Abbey《诺桑觉寺 》Sense and Sensibility《理智与情感》Pride and Prejudice《 傲慢与偏见》Mansfield Park《 曼斯菲尔德花园 》Emma《 爱玛 》 Persuasion 《 劝告 》Romantic essay Charles Lamb 查尔斯 ·兰姆Tales from Shakespeare《 莎 士 比 亚 戏 剧 故 事 集 》 Album VersesEssays of Elia《 伊 利 亚 随 笔 》William Hazlitt 威廉 ·赫列特Thomas De Quincey 托马斯 ·德· 昆西6. The Victorian Age --- Critical Realism in England (19 century)Novel Charles Dickens 查尔斯·狄更斯Oliver Twist《 雾 都 孤 儿 》The Old Curiocity Shop《 老 古 玩 店 》The Pickwick Papers《 匹 克 威 克 外 传 》11fill in the BlanksBeowulf is a folk legend brought to England by the Anglo-Saxons from their primitive Northern Europe.Beowulf was passed down from mouth to mouth.Beowulf was written down in the 10th century.Humanism refers to the literary culture in the Renaissance. Humanism became the central theme of English Renaissance. Thomas More and William Shakespeare are the best representatives of the English humanistsHumanism is the idea that man has a potential for culture which distinguishes him from lower orders of beings, and which he should strive constantly to fulfill. The Renaissance is actually a movement stimulated by a series of historical events, such as the rediscovery of ancient Roman and Greek culture, the new discoveries in geography and astrology, the religious reformation and the economic expansion.Early Plays in Middle Ages include The Miracle Play 奇迹剧 The Morality Play 道德剧 The Interlud 幕间休息剧 The Classical Drama古典剧The immediate predecessors of Shakespeare were a group of men from the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge, who were generally known as the University WitsThe key-note of Hamlet’s character is melancholy,and there can be no Hamlet without melancholyHamlet is a hero of the RenaissanceHamlet’s learning , wisdom, noble nature, limitation and tragedy are all representative of the humanists at the turn of the 17th and the 16th centuries.Shakespeare was skilled in many poetic forms: the song, the sonnet, the couplet, and the dramatic blank verse;He was a great master of English language;He was the summit of the English Renaissance and one of the great writers all over the world. Adam and Eve embody Milton’s belief in the powers of man, craving (longing) for knowledge.Satan is a rebel against tyranny and Satan and his followers resemble a republican ParliamentEnglish enlighteners believed in the power of reason. That is why the 18th 12century has often been called “the age of reason” or “the kingdom of reason”.Most of the enlighteners believed that social problems could be solved by human intelligence.this period was characterized by the so-called neo-classicism of which the leading figure was Alexander Pope. The representative of Periodical Literature in Early 18th Century England: Addison and SteeleThe best part of Robinson Crusoe is the realistic account of the successful struggle of Robinson alone against the pitiless forces of nature on the island.A social fable consists of four books. The hero of the novel is Lemuel Gulliver, a doctor. telling about his fantastic visits to some unbelievable places, in which the inhabitants are Lilliputians, the giants Brobdingnagians, Yahoos, and Houyhnhnms. The features of the Romantic writings a dissatisfaction with the bourgeois society.Romantic writings are filled with strong-willed heroes or even titanic images, formidable events and tragic situations, powerful conflicting passions and exotic picturesThe romanticists paid great attention to the spiritual and emotional life of manPersonified nature plays an important role in the pages of Romantic writingsThe publication of the “Lyrical Ballads” marked the break with the conventional poetical tradition of the 18th centuryi wandered lonely contains four six-lined stanzas of iambic tetrameter.The poem is about The beauty of natureQuestion1What is Literature?Literature refers to the practice and profession of writing. It comes from human interest in telling a story, in arranging words in artistic forms, in describing in words some aspects of human experiences. 2What is Renaissance?1. DefinitionThe Renaissance (14th – mid-17th century), which means rebirth and revival. The renaissance, therefore, in essence, is a historical period in which the European humanist thinkers and scholars tried to get rid of those old feudalist ideas in medieval Europe, to introduce new ideas that expressed the interests rising bourgeoisie, and to recover the purity of the early church from the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church(罗马天主教堂 ).It is characterized with the growth of a more scientific outlook, major 13development in art and literature, new invention and overseas discoveries and a general assertion of human value and emancipation(解放 ) of the human intellect and power.3Summarize the periods of Shakespeare’s literary career and achievements?Shakespeare’s Literary Career Four successive periods with increasing maturity 1588-1593, the Period of Experiment and Preparation Richard III, a melodramatic chronicle-history play, largely imitative of Marlowe and yet showing striking power At the end of this period Shakespeare issued two rather long narrative poems on classical subjects, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece 1594-1601, the second period Shakespeare’s work, filled with chronicle-history plays and comedies Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, etc. Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado about Nothing, As You Like It Romeo and Juliet14 1601-1609, the third period of Shakespeare’s literary career, in which appeared Shakespeare’s great tragedies and certain cynical plays In these plays, Shakespeare sets himself to grapple with the deepest and darkest problems of human characters and life Shakespeare’s four great tragedies Hamlet: the struggle of a perplexed and divided soul/self Othello: the ruin of a noble life/ man by an evil one through the terrible power of jealousy King Lear: unnatural ingratitude working its hateful will and yet thwarted at the end by its own excess and by faithful love Macbeth: the dest





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