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高中英语---特殊句式全面讲解及练习(含答案).doc

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高中英语---特殊句式全面讲解及练习(含答案).doc
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1高中英语语法讲义第二讲 ——特殊句式倒装句通常句式为自然语序“主语+谓语”,有时为了强调句子的某一部分,或者出于词汇用法、语法结构或修辞上的需要,将这种比较固定的语序加以颠倒,就形成了倒装。分为完全倒装,部分倒装和形式倒装。一.完全倒装:谓语动词完全置于主语之前,主语为名词不为代词,谓语不用进行时。1.一些表示地点、时间或方位等的副词或介词短语。如:here, there, now, then, up, down ,in, out,away, off, in the room, on the wall 等置于句首。Down came the rain and up went the umbrella.Then followed three days of heavy rain.Out rushed the children laughing loudly.Away flew the plane.2.such 位于句首。Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century’s greatest scientist.注:此句型中的 such 多被认为是表语,所以 such 后的 be 动词应与其后真正的主语保持一致。Such are the facts; no one can deny them.二.部分倒装:只把谓语的一部分(助动词,情态动词或 be 动词)置于主语之前1.so+ be 动词/ 助动词/ 情态动词+主语,意为“.也是如此 ”。They love making lots of friends; so do I.2.neither/nor+ be 动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,意为“.也不这样”。Lily can’t ride a bicycle; neither/nor can Lucy.3.否定词 never, seldom, nor, not, little, hardly, scarcely 等或表示否定意义的介词短语 at no time,under/in no circumstances, in no case, by no means, on no condition 等置于句首时。Not a single mistake did he make.=He didn’t make a single mistake.4.only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句,且放在句首时。Only then did I begin to understand him.Only in this way can we solve the problem.Only after the war did he learn the sad news.5.so.that.和 such.that.句式中, so 或 such 及其所修饰的部分置于句首时,主句用部分倒装。So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood2Such progress did he make that he won much respect.3.形式倒装:在语法上称为前置。只把强调的内容提至句首,主谓并不倒装。1.感叹句What an interesting talk they had!=How interesting a talk they had!2.the+比较级.,the +比较级.句型The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.3.whatever+ n.或 however+ adj./adv.引导的让步状语从句Whatever reasons you have, you should carry out your promise.However difficult the problem may be, we must work it out this evening.4,as / though 引导让步状从,表语、状语、含情态动词的谓语提前,表语为单数名词提前不用冠词。Young as /though he was, he was successful.Child as /though he is, he knows much.题组训练1. Only when you can find peace in your heart you keep good relationships with others.2. At no time they actually break the rules of the game. It was unfair to punish them.3. Only after Mary read her composition the second time she notice the spelling mistake.4. ---It’s so good. Never before I had such a nice meal!---I am glad you like it.答案:1. will 2. did 3. did 4. have强调句1.强调句型的陈述句形式:It is /was +被强调部分+that/who+其他部分。被强调部分为“人”时可用 who/that,被强调部分是“事物”时用 that.It is I who/that am right(强调主语)It was him that/who we met at the school gate.(强调宾语) It was in the park that Tom lost his watch.(强调状语)2.强调句型的一般疑问句形式:Is/Was it +被强调部分+that/who+其他成分Was it in 1939 that the Second World War broke out?Is it Professor Wang who teaches you English?33.强调句型的特殊疑问句形式:特殊疑问词+is/was it that+其他成分。Who was it that broke the window?When was it that you called me yesterday?What is it that you want me to do?4.有时可用 It might bethat/who,It must have been that/who句型表示强调。It might be his father that/who you’re thinking of.It must have been his brother that/who you saw.5.not.until结构的强调句型。其强调句式为:It is /was not until + 被强调部分+that+主句的肯定式He didn’t go to bed until ten o’clock.It was not until ten o’clock that he went to bed.I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.二 对谓语动词的强调It is /was who/that.结构不能强调谓语动词。强调谓语动词,用助动词 do, does 或 did 加原形。Do come this evening.He did write to you last week.Tom does study hard now.三 特殊疑问句中以“the devil” “on earth” “in the world”表“究竟;到底”之意来起强调的作用。What on earth are you doing.?题组训练1. Was because Jack came late for school Mr. Smith got angry?2. It only after he had read the papers Mr. Gross realized the task before him was extremely difficult to complete.3. It was not until I came here I realized this place was famous for not only its beauty but also its weather.4. It was from only a few supplies that she had bought in the village the hostess cooked such a nice dinner.其他特殊句式4一 省略与代替(1)定语从句中的省略现象限制性定语从句中宾语的关系代词 that ,which, whom 常可以省略。如 She is the girl (whom/who/that) I would like to work with.(2)状语从句中的省略现象1.当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致,可以省略状语从句中的主语和 be 动词,这时从句中可以出现下列结构:(1)连词(though, if, when 等)+形容词Work hard when (you are) young, or you’ll regret.(2)连词(as if, while 等)+介词短语He looked everywhere as if (he was) in search of something.(3)连词(when, while, though)+现在分词While (I was)walking along the street, I heard my name called.(4)连词(when, if, unless, once, than 等)+过去分词The exhibition is more interesting than (it was) expected.(5)连词(as if, as though 等)+不定式He opened his mouth as if (he were) to say something.注:当主从句的宾语一致时,有时也可以这样省略。如:Her father told her to be careful when (she was) crossing the street.2.当从句中的主语是 it,谓语部分又含有 be 动词时,也可把 it 和 be 动词一起省略,构成“ 连词(if ,unless, when, whenever 等)+形容词”的结构。Make a careful plan if (it is) possible.Unless (it is) necessary, you’d better not refer to the dictionary.(3)不定式的省略,单独使用不定式符号 to1.代替动词不定式后被省略的动词,常用在 be afraid,expect,forget,hope,intend,like,love,mean,prefer,reuse,seem,try,want,wish 等后面。I asked him to see a film, but he didn’t want to.2.在 have, need, ought, be going, used 等后面I didn’t want to go there, but I had to.3.在某些形容词,如 glad, happy, pleased, delighted 后面。---Will you join in the game?---I’d be glad to.4. 否定形式的省略用 not to.---Shall I go instead of him?---I prefer you not to.5(4)用 so 或 not 代替前面提到的句子。1.在 if 条件句中,常用 so/that 代替前面提到的句子。Get up early tomorrow. If not(=If you don’t get up early),you will miss the first bus.He may not be at home then. If so (=If he is not at home),leave him a note.2.think,hope,suppose,believe,imagine,be afraid, expect, guess 等词后常用 not 代替否定句,so 代替短语或从句。---She must look like a pretty girl.---Yes, I imagine so.---Is Professor Smith very sick?---I’m afraid so.---I slipped on the stairs. I think my arm is broken.---Oh! I hope not.He wanted to go with us, but he didn’t say so.题组训练:将下列句子中的省略成分补全1. He was determined to carry out the plan, whatever the cost.2. When split, an atom can release energy.3. They were scolded whenever late for school.4. If not well organized, the meeting will be a failure.二 祈使句1.否定式和强调式Don’t be so sure.(否定式)Do be careful.(强调式)2.祈使句+and+陈述句=If,+主句祈使句+or+陈述句=If.not,+主句Working hard and you will succeed.=If you work hard, you will succeed.Hurry up or we will be late.= If you don’t hurry up, we will be late.题组训练:句型转换1. Work hard and you will be admitted to a key university.6you work hard, you admitted to a key university.2. If you don’t hurry up, you will be late for the bus.you will be late for the bus.三 感叹句1. What (+a/an) +形容词+名词+主语+谓语!2. How +形容词+a/an+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!3. How +形容词/副词+ 主语+谓语What a clever boy he is! = How clever a boy he is!What beautiful flowers they are!How high the mountain is!How fast he runs!题组训练:用 what ,how 填空1. an interesting book it is !2. interesting a book it is !3. interesting books they are!4. delicious food I had!5. kind of you to help!6. I wish I were a bird!四 there be 句型1.there be 句型在英语中表示“什么地方或什么时间存在什么事物 ”。be 后面是主语,句子结尾是地点(时间)状语.There is a tall tree in front of the classroom.There will be a meeting in the conference room at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning.2. 如果有两个或两个以上的主语,谓语动词 be 与主语采用就近原则。 There is a pen, two books, and many pencils on the desk.3. there be 结构有不同的时态形式,而且可以和各种助动词、情态动词连用。There was a meeting in our school yesterday.There will be a new film show on Sunday.There have been many great changes in our country since then.7There can’t be any mistakes in his passage.4, there be 结构中的谓语动词 be 有时可用 seem to be, happen to be, be likely to be, remain, stand, lie, go, exist, follow, live, come, occur 等替换。There is likely to be something wrong with his computer.Once upon a time there lived a monk in the temple.五 反意疑问句(1)陈述部分含有 must/ may (might) 的反意疑问句当 must 作“必须”讲时,其反意疑问句部分用 needn’t;当含有 mustn’t (不允许,禁止)时,其反意疑问句部分用 must/may.You must go now, needn’t you?You mustn’t smoke here, must/may you?当 must/may(might)表示推测,即 must 作“一定,准是”讲,may/might 作“可能”讲时,可首先将句子改为“I am sure/guess +that 从句”, 反意疑问句部分的动词形式根据 be sure/guess 后的宾语从句的谓语动词形式确定。must have done 有过去时间状语当过去时反问,否则当现在完成时反问。You must/may (might) be hungry now, ? →I am sure/guess that you are hungry now, aren’t you? →You must/may (might) be hungry now, aren’t you? You must have heard about it, ? →I am sure/guess that you have heard about it, haven’t you? →You must have heard about it, haven’t you?(2)陈述部分含有 used to 的反意疑问句其反意疑问句部分用 usedn’t 或 didn’t 均可You used to sleep with the window open, usedn’t /didn’t you?(三)陈述部分含有 ought to 的反意疑问句其反意疑问部分用 oughtn’t 或 shouldn’t 均可He ought to attend the lecture, oughtn’t /shouldn’t he?(四)陈述部分含有否定词或半否定词的反意疑问句当陈述部分带有 seldom, hardly ,scarcely, never, few, little, nothing, nobody 等否定词或半否定词时,反意疑问部分的动词用肯定形式。He could hardly walk without a stick, could he?8(5)如果陈述部分含有表示“否定”意义的前缀构成的词,其反意疑问部分一般用否定形式。Tom dislike playing tennis, doesn’t he?It’s unfair, isn’t it?(6)陈述部分带有宾语从句的反意疑问句1. 宾语从句的反意疑问句,一般变主句He said that he would come to my birthday party, didn’t he?Tom doesn’t believe Jane will succeed, does he?2.但由 I/ we think, believe, suppose, guess, expect, imagine,引导宾从时,反意疑问句需变从句。注意否定前移。I don’t believe he will succeed, will he? (7)陈述部分为祈使句的反意疑问句祈使句后的反意疑问句部分不表示反意,而表示一种语气1.否定祈使句,+will you?2.肯定祈使句,+will/won’t you?3.Let’s .,+shall we?4.Let us.,+will you?5.Let+第三人称.+will you?Open the door, will /won’t you?Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?Let us go home now, will you?(8)there be 句型的反意疑问句其反意疑问句部分用 be/情态动词/ 助动词+thereThere will be rain tomorrow, won’t there?There should be no problem, should there?(九)回答反意疑问句时应遵循的原则1.不管陈述部分为否定,还是反意疑问句部分为否定,回答时只看所提到的事情是否已/会发生。如果发生了,用肯定回答,否则用否定回答。2. 答案就两个,要么肯定,要么否定,不会出现类似 Yes, I don’t 或 No, I do 的形式。前否后肯时,yes / no 反过来译。(10)反意疑问句部分的主语和陈述部分的主语在人称、数上保持一致的几种情况9陈述部分主语 反意疑问句部分主语 例句one(指人) one 或 he One can’t be careful enough, can he/one?this ,that, these, those it 或 they This isn’t a fast train, is it?everything, anything, something,nothingit Nothing happened to him, did it?everyone, everybody, someone,somebody, nobody, anyone,anybodyhe 或 they(更常见) Nobody likes to be laughed at, does he/ do they?不定式,动名词,其他短语 it Learning English well takes us a lot of time, doesn’t it?题组训练1.---You haven’t been here long, have you?--- . I am a newcomer here.2. Neither you nor I have done such silly things, ?3.What a long time we’ve been waiting , ?4.Mrs. Black doesn’t believe her son is able to design a digital camera, ?5.It must have rained last night, ?6.John told you that there wasn’t anyone in the room at that time, ?7.John ,you mop the floor, ?8.Let’s have a break, ?9.Mr. Smith, let us have a break, ?10.There is no doubt about it, ?答案 1. No ,I haven’t 2.have we 3.isn’t it 4.does she 5.didn’t it 6.didn’t he 7.will /won’t you 8.shall we 9.will you 10.is there10特殊句式练习练习一1. Only when Lily walked into the office she realize that she had left the contract at home.2. Only after talking to two students I discover that having strong motivation is one of the biggest factors in reaching goals.3. It was when we were returning home I realized what a good feeling it was to have helped someone in trouble.4. Bach died in 1750, but it was not until the early 19th century his musical gift was fully recognized.5. If (accept) for the job, you’ll be informed soon.6. Video games can be a poor influence if (leave) in the wrong hands.7. Always in mind that your main task is to get this company running smoothly.8. It was the culture, rather than the language, made it hard for him to adapt to the new environment abroad.9. It’s not doing the things we like, but liking the things we have to do makes life happy.10. (observe) carefully if any change occurs when doing experiments in the lab.11. Give me a chance, I’ll give you a wonderful surprise.12. The climate here is quite pleasant, the temperature rarely, ever, reaching 30℃ in summer.13. (make) what you’re doing today important,because you’re trading a day of your life for it.14. The driver wanted to park his car near the roadside but was asked by the police (not).15. Every day (read) a proverb aloud several times until you have it memorized.16. by increasing the number of doctors by 50 percent can the patients be treated properly in this hospital.17. Not until he went through real hardship he realize the love we have for our families is important.18. “Never for a second,” the boy says. “ I doubt that my father would come to my rescue.”19. Not once it occur Michael that he could one day become a top student in his class.1120. Only when he apologizes for his rudeness I speak to him again.21. Not until he retired from teaching three years ago he consider having a holiday abroad.22. Little she care what she looks like; all she cares about is her job performance.23. Never before he seen anybody who can play tennis as well as Robert.24. This is not my story; nor it the whole story. My story plays out differently.25. It was 80 years before Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic Zheng He had sailed to East Africa.26. (knock) at the door before you enter my room, please.27. Before you quit your job, (consider) how your family would feel about your decision.28. Was it on a lonely island he was saved one month after the boat went down?29. It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do benefits our work fast.30. It is not what we do once in a while shapes our lives, but what we do consistently.31. Bring the flowers into a warm room they’ll soon open.32. Find ways to praise your children often, you’ll find they will open their hearts to you.练习二1. I have nothing to declare. What is it you want me to say?2. So sudden (be) the train that people in the street all rushed in all directions to find a shelter.3. The ground is wet all over, so I’m sure it must have rained last night, it?4. It was in the park, where stands an old temple, we asked our guide to take a photo for the two of us.5. These problems, if not properly (solve) ,will seriously affect the growth of teenagers and even the nation’s future.6. is the gravity of the situation that we can’t underline the importance of public attention enough.7. Unjust the punishment was, he accepted it without any complaint.8. Accustomed we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent.9. Mr. Mike didn’t understand what it was made his wife so upset this morning.10. He switched off the light and was about to leave the classroom and only then it begin to rain heavily.11. ---David has made great progress recently.---So he ,and have you.12. ---Was Bill, who played basketball very well, helped the blind man cross the road?--- Yes, of course. He is always ready to help others.13. They felt it was high tax and low income contribut
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