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大学四级英语语法汇总.doc

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大学四级英语语法汇总.doc
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1大学四级语法讲义一:时态:所谓的“时态“,就是时间+状态。谓语动词的时态见下表:1.主动形式2.被动形式 CET-4 常考的三种时态:过去完成时;将来完成时;(现在/ 过去)完成进行时。 时间状语从句当中的时态:一般过去时 所有的过去用 一般现在时 表示 现在和将来现在完成时 现在完成和将来完成一.非谓语动词一.不定式:一)不定式的常考形式:1) 一般形式:He decided to work harder in order to catch up with the others.被动形式: He preferred to be assigned some heavier work to do.语法功能: 表示与谓语动词同步发生2) 完成形式:He pretended not to have seen me.被动形式:The book is said to have been translated into many languages.语法功能:表示发生在谓语动词之前二)不定式常考的考点:1)不定式做定语----将要发生2)不定式做状语----目的3)不定式充当名词功能---To see is to believe.三)不定式的省略1)感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel+ do 表示动作的完整性,真实性;+ doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性I saw him work in the garden yesterday.昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调“我看见了“这个事实)I saw him working in the garden yesterday.过去 现在 将来 过去将来一般 did do will/shall do should/would do进行 was/were doing am/is/are doing will/shall be doing /完成 had done have/has done will/shall have doneshould/would have done 用于虚拟语气完成进行 had been doing have/has been doing/ /过去 现在 将来 过去将来一般 was/were given am/is/are given will/shall be given should/would be given进行 was/were being givenam/is/are being given/ /完成 had been given have/has been givenwill/shall have been givenshould/would have been given完成进行 / / /2昨天我见他正在花园里干活。(强调“我见他正干活“这个动作) 感官动词后面接形容词而不是副词:The cake tastes good; It feels comfortable.2) 使役动词 have bid make let 等词后不定式要省略但同 1)一样被动以后要还原 to I ‘d like to have John do it. I have my package weighed.Paul doesn’t have to be made to learn. 3) help help sb do help sb to do help do help to do四) 有些动词后只跟不定式如:want,wish, hope,manage,promise,refuse,pretend,plan, offer,decide ,agree,expect allow sb to do, cause sb to do , permit sb to do, enable sb to do force sb to do. be more likely to do love to do warn sb to do be able to do be ambitious to do. begin to do . start to do五) 有的时候 to 后面要接-ing 形式accustom (oneself) to; be accustomed to; face up to; in addition to; look forward to; object to; be reduced to; resign oneself to; be resigned to; resort to; sink to; be used to; be alt
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