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研究生英语阅读教程(基础级3版)课文答案翻译1-12单元完整版.doc

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研究生英语阅读教程(基础级3版)课文答案翻译1-12单元完整版.doc
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Lesson 1II. TranslationPut the following passages into Chinese.1. For English is a killer. It is English that has killed off Cumbric, Cornish, Norn and Manx. There are still parts of these islands where sizeable communities speak languages that were there before English. Yet English is everywhere in everyday use and understood by all or virtually all, constituting such a threat to the three remaining Celtic languages, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh. that their long-term future must be considered. very greatly at risk.因为英语是个杀手。正是英语造成了康瑞克、康尼施、诺恩、曼科斯等语言的消亡。在其中一部分岛上还有相当多的人使用在英语到来之前就已存在的语言。然而,英语在日常生活中无处不在。所有的人或几乎所有的人都懂英语。英语对现存的凯尔特语——爱尔兰语、苏格兰盖尔语及威尔士语的威胁是如此之大,它们的未来岌岌可危。2. He also associated such policies with a prejudice which he calls linguisticism (a condition parallel to racism and sexism). As Phillipson sees it, leading institutions and individuals within the predominantly “white“ English-speaking world, have (by design or default) encouraged or at least tolerated—and certainly have not opposed—the hegemonic spread of English, a spread which began some three centuries ago as economic and colonial expansion.同时,他认为这些政策和他称之为语言歧视(和种族歧视、性别歧视的情况类似)的偏见密切相关。在菲利普森看来,在以白人英语为主导的世界,最重要的机构和个人(有意或无意地)鼓励或者至少是容忍了(肯定没有反对)英语霸权主义式的传播。这种传播始于三个世纪之前的经济及殖民扩张。 3. By and large, we now view them as more or less benign, and often talk with admiration and appreciation about the cultures associated with them and what they have given to the world. And it is fairly safe to do this, because none of them now poses much of a threat.总的来说,我们现在或多或少地把这些语言看作有利的语言。在谈到与之相关的文化及其为世界所做的贡献时,我们常怀有崇敬与赞赏,而且这样做也没有太大的风险,因为这些语言现在已不会构成什么威胁。 4. Yet many people see English as a blessing. Let me leave aside here the obvious advantages possessed by any world language, such as a large communicative network, a strong literary and media complex, and a powerful cultural and educational apparatus.然而,许多人把英语看成是一件幸事。在此,我暂且不谈任何世界语言所具有的明显优势,例如广泛的通信网,强大的文化传媒体系,及强有力的文化教育机构。 5. English-speaking South Africans of British descent were not particularly strong in opposing the apartheid regime, and the black opposition, whose members had many languages, was at first weak and disorganized.讲英语的南非英国后裔并不强烈反对种族隔离政权,而黑人反对力量,其成员讲多种语言,在初期软弱无力且缺乏组织。 6. Such symbolism suggests that the users of the world's lingua franca should seek to benefit as fully as possible from the blessing and as far as possible avoid invoking the curse.这一象征表明这种世界通用语的使用者应充分发掘这一幸事为我们带来的好处,同时尽能避免招来灾难。 Lesson 21.The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love.苹果公司发生的这些事情丝毫的没有改变这一点。我被驱逐了,但是我仍然钟爱我所做的事情。2.The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.因为,作为一个成功者的负重感被作为一个创业者的轻松感觉所重新代替, 没有比这更确定的事情了。这让我觉得如此自由, 进入了我生命中最有创造力的一个阶段。3.it was awful(可怕的 好可怕 糟糕的 ) tasting medicine,but i guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick . Don't lose faith.这个良药的味道实在是太苦了,但是我想病人需要它。有时候,人生会用砖头打你的头。不要失去信心。4.remembering that you are going to die is the best way i know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose.you are already naked .there is no reason not to follow your heart.记住你要死去是我所知道最好的方法来避免思维的陷阱你输得起的东西。你已经裸体。没有理由不去追随你的心.5.your time is limited,so don't waste it living someone else's life.don't the trapped by dogma--which is living with the results of other people's thinking.don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your inner voice.你的时间有限,所以不要浪费时间去过别人的生活。不要被信条所惑——盲从信条是活在别人的思考结果。不要让别人的意见淹没了你内心的声音。Lesson 61. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, who coined the term flow, which adherents of positive psychology would use to describe the job-induced highs, says that distinction is a false one. “Anything can be enjoyable if the elements of flow are present,“ he writes in his book Good Business. “Within that framework, doing a seemingly boring job can be a source of greater fulfillment than one ever thought possible.“米哈里·奇凯因特米哈里认为这种区分是错误的。他发明了“强感受” (flow)这个说法, 信奉正面心理学的人常用此词来描述由工作而引发的兴奋状态。在《称心如意的工作》一书中他写道: “只要存在强感受因素 , 任何事情都能给我们带来愉悦。根据这一观点, 从事一份表面看上去枯燥的工作却会给人们带来想象不到的更大的成就感。 ”2. But neither the late 1990s boom nor the subsequent bust had much impact in either direction, indicating that the state of worker happiness goes much deeper than the swings of the economy.但是 20 世纪 90 年代后期的经济繁荣和随之而来的经济萧条都没有对员工的两种工作态度产生多大影啊, 这表明工人在工作中是否能获得快乐感有比经济形势更深层的原因。3. Martina Radix, 41, traded a high-pressure job as an executive assistant at a company where she liked her colleagues for a less taxing position as a clerical worker in a law firm six years ago. She has more time and flexibility but feels stifled by her co-workers and unappreciated by her boss. “I am a misfit in that department,“ she says. “No matter how good your personal life is, if you go in to a bad atmosphere at work, it takes away from it.“41 岁的马丁娜·蕾迪克斯原是一家公司的经理助理, 虽然工作压力大, 但她和同事相处都很好;6 年前她换了工作, 到一家律师事务所成了一名职位相对清闲的办事员。如今她时间多了, 自由度也大了, 但她感觉和这里的同事共事太压抑, 也得不到老板的赏识。她说: “我不适应这个部门。不管你个人生活多惬意, 如果工作单位氛围不好, 个人生活就会大受影响。 ” 4. In fact, engagement at work is less a function of your personality than is happiness in general. Harter estimates that individual disposition accounts for only about 30% of the difference between employees who are highly engaged and those who are not. The rest of it is shaped by the hundreds of interactions that employees have every day with co-workers, supervisors and customers.事实上, 对工作的投入与其说是人的个性使然, 不如说是源于人们在工作中总体上感到的快乐。哈特认为, 对工作高度投入与并不投入的员工之间之所以存在差异, 员工的个性只起30%的作用, 其他的取决于员工每天与同事、主管以及客户的频繁交往。5. Until recently, businesspeople would dismiss employee well-being as “outside their domain and kind of fringe-ish”, says Thomas Wright, a professor of organizational behavior at the University of Nevada, Reno.内华达大学里诺分校的组织行为学教授托马斯·赖特说, 直到不久前, 企业家们还不愿考虑员工是否工作心情舒畅的问题, 认为这“不属于他们关心的范围, 和他们的职责范围相去甚远” 6. But later studies that looked at job-satisfaction ratings were inconsistent. Broader measures of happiness, it turns out, are better predictors of productivity.但后来对工作满意度的许多研究结果却前后矛盾。现在看来, 用更广泛的衡量标准来评估快乐感受, 能更有效地预测生产率。7. But at the very least, businesses could do better just by paying attention to what their employees want and need. Then more of us could find a measure of fulfillment in what we do. And once in a while, we might hope to transcend it all. It can happen on the basketball court, in front of a roaring crowd, or in a classroom, in front of just one grateful student.但通过关心员工的需求, 至少企业可能发展得更好。那样, 我们更多的人就会在工作中找到一定程度的满足感。而且偶尔我们可能还希望获得最大程度的满足。这种情况可能发生在篮球场上喧闹欢呼的人群前, 也可能发生在教室里, 在仅仅一个充满感激的学生面前。Lesson7IV. TranslationPut the following into Chinese.1.Big surprise, I thought, tossing the balled-up clipping over my shoulder. That's up there with “money eases stress“, “liars make good writers“ and “philanderers make even better liars“.大惊喜,我以为,棉布将里头的卷成球的剪裁在我的肩膀上,与“金钱减轻压力”,“骗子好作家”和“花花公子做更好的骗子” 。2.Last year, she sadly got her wish, far too soon, living just over half as long as the woman who bore her.去年,她不幸的是她的愿望,太很快,生活超过一半,只要生了她的女人。3.His main character, Enid Lambert, suffers from a depression that acts as a kind of invisible forcefield, unconsciously repelling everyone away from her fragile core. Enid complains and sulks, manipulates and cajoles, in order to assuage her fundamental dissatisfaction.他的主要人物,伊妮德兰伯特,患上了抑郁症,作为一种无形的力场,无意识地排斥每个人都远离她脆弱的核心。伊妮德抱怨和摔东西、操纵和劝诱,为了减轻她基本的不满。4.She remains intact because her depression protects her from ever truly suffering, the way those around her must. What doesn't kill you, it seems, moves on to more stubborn quarry.她仍保持完整,因为抑郁症保护真正的痛苦,她周围的人必须的方式。什么不杀了你,看来,移动更顽固的采石场。5.So, hit the snooze, the bottle or the skids. Resume bitching, chin down, carry the hatchet, under rug nothing. Life is hard and then you. sigh. Heavily. 睡,瓶子或打滑。简历牢骚,下巴,把短柄小斧,在地毯。生活是困难的,然后你……叹气。 。Lesson 8IV. TranslationPut the following into Chinese.1. Every war has had its songs that whipped up patriotic fervor or, in the case of the Vietnam War that encouraged protest against it.每场战争都有自己的歌曲来唤起人们的爱国热情或者如在越南战争中鼓励人们反战。2. The idea is to take a song that people like or that has particular meaning or emotional association for them and use it with new words, hoping that some of the liking, meaning, or emotional associations will transfer to the new ideas being communicated. And it often works.改词是把一首人们喜爱或者对他们具有特殊意义或感情色彩的歌曲填上新词,希望把这种喜爱、意义或感情色彩带到正在传播的新观念中。通常这种方法很奏效。 3 As a result, a number of community and national groups have applied pressure on stations to keep these songs and performers off the air. These charges also stimulated investigations by the Federal Communications Commission, the regulatory agency charged with overseeing broadcast practices.结果一些社团和全国性团体向电台或电视台施加压力让他们禁播这些演员的节目。这些 指控也促使负责广播业的监管机构联邦通讯委员会开始进行调查。 4. Does it mean a station should permit no language or ideas in a song that it would not permit on the news or in a sports program? Or does it mean the station should recognize that different forms of communication or entertainment, or programs designed for different kinds of audiences, should have different standards concerning language and ideas?这是否意味着在广播电台或电视台播放的歌曲中不允许出现那些在新闻或体育节目中禁止出现的语言和观念?或者这是否意味着电台或电视台应该承认不同的交流或娱乐形式,或是为不同听众设计的节目,在语言和观念上应该具有不同的标准? 5. One author has suggested that popular music also serves a “rite of passage“ function for young girls. The teenage singing idols may serve as non-threatening substitutes for actual boys until boys' maturation catches up with that of girls and some semblance of easy boy-girl relationships can be established.一位作者指出流行音乐也成了女孩子们成熟的标志。在同龄男孩子成长为像女孩子那样 成熟并能较容易地与女孩子建立朋友关系之前,少年歌星可能会成为不会对女孩子形成威胁的男友的替身。 LESSON 91.Welcome to the topsy-turvy world of tobacco, where nothing much makes sense except the vast profits, where tobacco-company executives slip-slide along the continuum from aggrieved Innocence to heartfelt regret without breaking a sweat, and where the only people who seem to be able to shoot straight are the jurors who decide the ubiquitous lawsuits. 欢迎来到乌七八糟的烟草世界。在这里,除了巨大的利益,没有什么具有重要意义;在这里,烟草公司的负责人不费吹灰之力就能穿梭于不同角色之间,从表现愤愤不平的无辜转而变为诚心诚意的悔过;在这里,似乎惟一能够言行正直(shoot straight: 言行正直)的人就是那些判定随处可见的烟草诉讼案的陪审员们。 2. The jurors—who gave up two years of their lives, listened to endless witnesses and yet deliberated only a few hours could be forgiven if they felt they'd fallen down Alice's rabbit hole into Wonderland, where the Queen of Hearts cries “Off with their heads“ but no one is ever executed. 这些陪审员放弃了生命中的两年时光,聆听了无数证人证言,却仅用了几个小时就商议定案。如果他们感觉像是爱丽丝跌下了兔子洞进入仙境,听着红心王后高喊“砍掉他们的脑袋” ,却从未有一个人被砍头,这种感觉是可以谅解的。 3. Since then tobacco companies have spread political contributions around like weed-killer on the lawn in summer, supporting largely complicit Republicans, who like free enterprise (and soft money) more than they hate emphysema. 从此以后,烟草公司就像夏天在草坪上播洒除草剂一般四处提供政治捐款,主要支持和自己立场相似的共和党人,因为共和党人虽然痛恨肺气肿,但却更喜爱自由企业(以及软资金) 。4. Responsibility-minded Americans accept the argument that individuals have the right to poison themselves, although studies showing that the vast majority of smokers began as minors raise questions about informed consent. 责任意识强的美国人接受任何人都有权毒害自己的观点,但是研究显示绝大多数吸烟者开始吸烟时仍未成年,这就对知情吸烟提出了疑问。 5. Public-service announcements, catchy commercials for kids, settlements with the states to recover health care costs: the tobacco companies, which once swore they were doing nothing wrong, are now willing to lose some ideological battles to win the war of the profit margin. 公益服务通告,针对儿童的好看易记的广告,与各州达成和解补偿卫生保健费用:曾经发誓绝没有做错任何事情的烟草公司现如今也愿意为最终保住利润而部分放弃意识形态的斗争。LESSON 101. The popular appeal of returning to the ways of the past as a solution to the problems of the 1980s was demonstrated when Ronald Reagan was elected President of the United States in 1980. Time magazine chose President Reagan as its “man of the year' and said of him: “intellectually, emotionally, Reagan lives in the past.“ 民众普遍希望昔日美好生活能够重现,以寻求解决 80 年代遇到的种种问题。1980 年,罗纳德·里根当选为美国总统,正是这一民意的体现。 《时代》周刊推选里根总统为年度风云人物,并说“无论是理智上还是情感上,里根都生活在过去之中” 。 2. By moving in this way toward the practices of the past, President Reagan believed that the standard of living of Americans would begin to improve once more in the 1980s as it had done throughout most of the nation's history. 里根总统相信,通过这种趋近过去的努力,美国人民的生活水平能像美国历史上大部分时期一样,再次在 80 年代能得以改善。 3. In time of war Americans have temporarily put aside their dislike of planned national cooperation. They have been willing to cooperate and make personal sacrifices under the direction of the national government to bring the war to satisfactory conclusion. In peacetime, however, planned nationalcooperation is strongly resisted as a threat to individual freedom. 战争时期,美国人把对有计划的举国合作的厌恶之情暂置一旁,甘愿在国家统一指挥下互相协作,甘愿牺牲个人利益以换取战争的最终胜利。然而,在和平时期,他们却坚决抵制有计划的举国合作,认为这是对个人自由的侵犯。 4. Americans tend to associate the greatness of their nation far more with such values as individualfreedom, equality of opportunity, hard work, and competition than with national cooperation. 美国人往往会认为国家的强大更多地源于个人自由、机会均等、勤奋努力、竞争取胜等价值观念而不是源于举国合作。 5. Some observers believe that this slow, cautious approach may be too weak and too timid to meet the challenges of the future. Americans, however, believe that sudden revolutionary changes made in the name of the national good usually result in dictatorships in which freedom is lost and problems remain unsolved. 有些评论家认为这种缓慢而谨慎的态度太过胆小乏力,无法迎接未来的挑战。然而,美国人则认为,以国家利益之名,骤然实行根本性变革,通常会导致独裁体制,不仅问题依然无法得到解决,还会失去个人自由。第 7 页 共 7 页 long ago. 月出之时,当我们放慢自己的思想,让它跟随天国的脚步,一种心醉神迷的感觉就会流遍全身。我们会打开情感的窗口,会让白天被理智锁住的那部分思绪尽情奔涌。我们有越过遥远的时空,听见远古猎人的低语'再次看到很久以前的恋人与诗人眼中的世界。 Lesson 11 1 Take another look at those cables: They snake into the back of the computer and then out again, terminating in a cap on the monkey's head, where they receive signals from hundreds of electrodesburied in its brain. The monkey is directing the robot with its thoughts. 再看看那些电缆。电缆弯弯曲曲地进入计算机后盖,然后又出来,最后到达猕猴头上的帽子里。电缆从埋在猕猴大脑里的数百个电极接收信号,猕猴用思维向机器手臂发出指令。 2 For decades scientists have pondered, speculated on, and poor-poohed the possibility of a direct interface between a brain and a machine---only in the late 1990s did scientists start learning enough about the brain and signal-processing to offer glimmers of hope that this science-fiction vision could become reality. 几十年来,科学家就一直在思索、推测大脑和机器直接联系的可能性,但都认为这不切实际。只是到了 20 世纪 90 年代末,科学家才开始充分地了解大脑与信号处理的有关知识,从而出现了使科幻小说的幻象变成现实的希望的曙光。 3.The notion of decoding the brain's commands can seem, on the face of it, to be pure hubris. How couldany computer eavesdrop on all the going-on that take place in there every moment of ordinary life? 解码大脑指令的想法乍看起来可能像是十足的狂妄自大。计算机怎么能窃听日常生活每时每刻发生在大脑甩的全部活动呢? 4 But most researchers assumed that each type of movement was governed by a specific handful of the brain's billions of neurons---the need to monitor the whole brain in order to find those few would make the successful decoding a practical impossibility. 但是,大多数研究人员认为,每种类型的运动都是靠大脑几十亿神经元中一些少数特定的神经元来控制的---为了找到那些少数神经元而需要监测整个大脑则会使成功的解码变为实际办不到的事。 5 Thus everything that was known at the time suggested that brain-machine interfaces were a fool's errand. Everything, it turned out, was wrong. 因此,那时知道的一切表明,使脑-机联系是徒劳无益之举。结果证明,那一切都是错误的。Lesson 12IV. T
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