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初三英语(被动语态).doc

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初三英语(被动语态).doc
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1课 题 被动语态的考点解析教学目标 掌握被动语态的用法教学内容【温故知新】批注:我们见过很多街头艺人,在大街上画出的立体画非常的逼真,很多人都会认为是真的,而从旁边绕过去,所以我们被欺骗啦! We are cheated! 这样的表达,就是我们今天要讲的内容 ——被动语态【知识梳理】知识点 1:被动语态的基本知识1. 语态:英语的语态是通过动词的形式表现出来的,用来表明主语与谓语动词之间的关系,英语的动词有两种语态形式,即主动语态和被动语态。如果主语是动作的执行者,谓语动词用主动语态。如果主语是动作的对象,谓语动词用被动语态。2. 主动语态与被动语态的转化:①将主动语态的宾语改为被动语态的主语;② 将主动语态的谓语动词改为“be+过去分词”结构;③将主动语态的主语改为介词 by 之后的宾语,放在谓语动词之后(有时可省略) 。例: We visited that factory last summer. 主动语态主语 谓语 宾语 状语That factory was visited by us last summer 被动语态主语 谓语 宾语 状语3. 用法:被动语态常用于以下两种情况:(1)不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者;例:This cloth is made of cotton. (2)强调动作的承受者。例:Her bike is stolen . 知识点 2:被动语态在各种时态下的构成时态 结构 例句一般现在时am/is/are +过去分词 We are taught English by her.由她教我们英语。2一般过去时was/were+过去分词 A present was given to me by Mary.玛丽给了我一件礼物。一般将来时will/shall/be going to be+过去分词The desk will be mended by him.这张桌子将由他修理。现在进行时am/is/are +being + 过去分词The walls are being painted now.正在粉刷墙壁。过去进行时was/were +being + 过去分词The talk was being given at this time yesterday.昨天这个时候正在作报告。现在完成时have/has been+过去分词 The flowers have been watered.这些花已经被浇了。过去完成时had been+过去分词 She said this lift had never been used.过去将来时would/should/be going to be+过去分词The film would be shown again sometime next week. 这部电影下周的某个时候又将上映。情态动词 情态动词+be+ 过去分词(其时态及句型的变化仅由情态动词完成,“be+过去分词“部分不变)例 1:Tables can be made of stone.桌子可由石头制造。例 2:Tables could be made of stone at that time. 那时桌子可由石头制造。 (一般过去时)例 3:Can tables be made of stone? 桌子能用石头制造吗?(疑问句)批注:这里可以跟学生一起回顾一下动词的原形、过去式和过去分词,避免混淆。【例题精讲】单选题例 1:(2012 福建福州) — Our classroom____________every day.— So it is. It's our duty to keep it clean and tidy.A. cleans B. is cleaning C. is cleaned D. cleaning解析:答案 C。our classroom 做主语,很明显是“被打扫”,并且根据语境是一般现在时态,所以用一般现在时态的被动 is cleaned。例 2:(2013 陕西)The mobile phone has influenced people’s life a lot since it _________.A. invents B. invented C. is invented D. was invented 解析:答案 D。考查动词时态和语态。句意:自从手机发明后,它在很大程度上影响了人们的生活。根据句意判断用一般过去时,手机与动词 invent 在逻辑上是被动关系,所以用一般过去时的被动语态。例 3:(2013 江苏南京)It is said that an Asian Culture Village inside the AYG, Village in Nanjing in the coming Asian Youth Games period.A. builds B. is building C. will be built D. was built解析:答案 C。考查动词的被动语态用法。 an Asian Culture Village(亚洲文化村)与动作 build 构成被动关系,所以应使用被动语态,故排除 A、B 项;又据句中 in the coming Asian Youth Games period 可知为将来时间,所以选择答案 C。例 4:(2013 内蒙古呼和浩特) People who ________ to the party are very excited. A. have invited B. has been invited C. will invite D. have been invited 3解析:答案 D。考查被动语态的用法。根据句意 “已经被邀请去参加聚会的人非常激动。 ”可以判断须用现在完成时的被动语态。B 和 C 选项为主动语态,但是动词 invite 没有宾语,故排除;而 B 选项中,has 和主语 people 不能搭配。所以选择答案 D。例5:(2013湖北黄冈)—How often do I need to feed the dog?— It ___ food every day, or it will be hungry.A. must give B. must be give C. must be given D. must be gave 解析:答案C。考查情态动词的被动语态。 它每天必须被喂食,应用被动语态,其构成是be+过去分词,故选C。例 6: The new suspension bridge ___ by the end of last month.A. has been designed B. had been designed C. was designed D. would be designed解析:答案 B。根据“by the end of last month”,所以用过去完成时,又因为这座新桥是被设计的,所以综合来看,用过去完成时的被动语态。例 7:用括号内动词的适当形式填空1.she _______________ (tell) the good news as soon as it arrived.2.A lot of work __________________(do) for the poor kids in the past few years.3.The book ________________ (write) by the young girl several years ago.4.All the tickets __________(sell) out when we got to the cinema.5.A new building __________(build) at our school now.6.I don't believe you've already finished reading the book which ________(lend) to you this morning!解析:1. 答案 was told。首先根据“as soon as it arrived”,判断时态是一般过去时,而句意是“她被告知这个好消息” ,所以用一般过去时的被动语态。 2. 答案 has been done。由时间状语可知需要用现在完成时态,句意是“大量工作已经被做” ,所以用被动语态。 3. 答案 was written。 “several years ago”,可判断时态为一般过去时, “书是由一个年轻女孩所写” ,应用被动语态。 4. 答案 had been sold。 “在他们到达电影院的时候,票已经卖完了” ,这里“到达”已经是过去时,所以票卖完了是在到达之前发生的,所以用过去完成时的被动语态。 5. 答案 is being built。由 now 可知需用现在进行时态,新桥是“被建造” ,所以用现在进行时态的被动语态。 6. 答案 was lent。由 this morning 可知时态为一般过去时,而书“被借出” ,用被动语态。例 8:把下列句子改为被动句1. John drew a beautiful horse last week.2. The children will sing an English song.3. People use metal for making machines.4. He asked me to do that for him.5. They sold out the light green dresses. 答案:1. A beautiful horse was drawn by John last week.2. A English song will be sung by the children.3. Metal is used for making machines by people.44. I was asked to do that for him.5. The light green dresses were sold out by them.例 9:用括号内所给动词的正确形式填空。1.It's said that the long bridge______________(build)in two months. 2.Where to have the meeting ______________ (discuss)now. 3.Which language _______the most widely_______(speak)in the world? 4.The lost boy_____________(not find)so far . 5.Last year a large number of trees______________(cut )down. 解析:1.答案 will be built。根据后面的 in two months 可判断时态为一般将来时,再根据主语是 bridge,可知桥是被建造的,所以用一般将来时的被动语态。2.答案 is being discussed。这里主语是疑问词引导的不定式做主语,谓语动词用三单形式, 再看最后的时间状语是 now,所以用现在进行时的被动语态“is being discussed ”。3. 答案 is spoken。句意是“哪种语言在全世界最广泛的被说” ,这是一种常识性的是奇怪,所以用一般现在时的被动语态。 4. 答案 hasn’t been found。首先根据后面的“so far”,判断时态为现在完成时,再根据主语是单数,可以判断用“hasn’t been found” 。5. 答案 were cut。时间状语“last year”,可判断时态为一般过去时,主语是很多树,所以用 were cut,这里需要注意 cut 的原形、过去式和过去分词拼写是一样的。例 10:单选题 1. The decision about the price ______ in a few days. So they have to wait.(2013 年白下区中考一模)A. is made B. was made C. is being made D. will be made 解析:答案 D。根据后面“in a few days”,判断是一般将来时。这个决定是 “被做”,所以用一般将来时的被动语态。2. If city noises ____ from increasing,people will have to shout to be heard even at dinner.A. are not kept B. are not keep C. do not keep D. do not kept解析:答案 A。这里首先是条件状语从句,遵循 “主将从现”原则,所以 if 从句里面用一般现在时态的被动。3. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, ____and perfected now.A. developed B. have developedC. are being developed D. will have been developed解析:答案 C。句意是“第五代电脑正在发展和完善 ”,有被动意思,而且有 now 这个时间状语,所以用现在进行时态的被动语态。4. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off.--- Yes,it all depends on the weather.A. I've been told B. I've told C. I'm told D. I told解析:答案 A。这里说的是运动会这个消息,我是 “被告知”的,所以用被动语态,所以排除 B 和 D。再根据句意,被告知这个事情已经发生了,强调对现在所造成的影响,所以需要用现在完成时态。5. I need one more stamp before my collection ___.A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed解析:答案 D。这里也需遵循 “主将从现”原则,before 引导的从句中需用一般现在时,所以用一般现在时的被动语态。6. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future.5A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut解析:答案 C。句意是“雨林正在以很快的速度被砍伐和焚烧”,所以用现在进行时的被动语态。7. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____.A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken解析:答案 C。这里的意思是 “当铅笔一端被放在一杯水里的时候,看起来就好像被折断了”,又因为这里涉及 as if 后面需要用虚拟语气,所以时态需比主句往后退一格,因此用过去时态的被动语态。【举一反三】知识点 1:①不及物动词不用于被动语态,如 appear, rise, come out, happen, occur, lie, take place 等不及物动词不能用于被动语态。例 1:Great changes______________place. Many new schools ______________. A. have taken, have been opened B. take, are open C. are taken, open D. have been taken, are opened 解析:答案 A。因为 take place 没有被动语态,所以排除 C 和 D,又因后句中很多新学校开了,这里需要被动,而且表示到现在为止已经开了,所以用现在完成时态的被动语态。综合选择 A。例 2:A strange thing _____ in our school yesterday. A. was happened B. has been happened C. happened D. was going to happen 解析:答案 C。因为 happen 没有被动语态,所以排除 A 和 B。又有 yesterday,可判断时态是一般过去时,所以选 C。②表状态动词不用于被动语态,常见的有:hold, have, cost, contain, become, look like 等例 1:这本书花了我 20 元。 (用 cost 翻译)____________________________________________________解析:答案 The book cost me 20 yuan。因为主语是书,很可能有的同学会写成 “The book was cost 20 yuan.” 可是 cost 这里表状态,不用于被动态。例 2:That suit __ over 60 dollars.A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost解析:答案 D。因为 cost 这个词不需要用被动语态,所以这里的主语是单数,可以用 costs(一般现在时)或 cost(一般过去时),根据选项,只能选 D。知识点 2:主动形式表被动意义。1)某些感官动词和系动词接形容词可以表示被动意义。如:look, smell, taste, feel, prove, wear, sound 等例:Her bedroom looks very clean and tidy.她的卧室看起来非常干净和整洁。2)某些作表语的形容词后,用不定式主动形式表示被动意义。例:The conversation is hard to understand.对这话很难理解。The fish is not easy to fish.鱼不容易钓。The passage is difficult to read.这段文章很难读懂。3)动名词的主动形式表示被动语态。如:need, require, worth 等,并且可相互转化,如 need doing = need to be done。例:The book is worth reading.这本书值得一读。The children need looking after.孩子们需要照看。64)write, sell, wash 和 read 和副词连用,主动语态表被动意义。例:The pen writes smoothly. 这笔写起来很顺手。The article reads well. 这篇文章读起来很好。例 1:--- Do you like the material? --- Yes, it ___ very soft. A . is feeling B . felt C . feels D . is felt 解析:答案 C。这道题首先根据选项看出考查的是 feel 的用法,它属于系动词,无被动,无进行时,所以排除 A,D,然后根据前一句话的时态确定选择 C。 例 2:It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese.A. write B. to write C. to be written D. written解析:答案 B。作表语的形容词 difficult 后不定式 to write 主动形式表示被动意义。例 3:The composition doesn’t____any more. A. need to be correcting B. need to be corrected C. need be corrected D. need be correcting解析:答案 B。因为 need doing sth = need to be done,这里只有 B 正确,如果变成 need doing sth,可以换成 need correcting。例 4:--- What do you think of the book? ---Oh, excellent. It's worth ___ a second time. A . to read B . to be read C . reading D . being read 解析:答案 C。本题通过后面的回答可以很明显看出是 be worth 的考点,首先后面接 doing,然后根据它的主动表被动的特点,排除 D。例 5:The kind of cloth ________ well.A.wash B.is washed C.washes D.is washing解析:答案 C。本题的考点是 wash 后接副词,表示耐洗,主动形式表被动语态,因为 cloth 不可数,所以谓语动词用三单形式。知识点 3:及物动词后跟双宾语的句子,被动语态有两种。常见的有:主动语态 被动语态bring sb. sth. 把某物带给某人 sb be brought sth / sth be brought to sb lend sb. sth. 把某物借给某人 sb be lent sth/ sth be lent to sboffer sb. sth. 将某物给某人 sb be offered sth/ sth be offered to sbpass sb. sth. 把某物递给某人 sb be passed sth/ sth be passed to sb pay sb. sth. 付给某人某物(钱) sb be paid sth/ sth be paid to sb send sb. sth.把某物送给某人 sb be sent sth/ sth be sent to sbsell sb. sth.把某物卖给某人 sb be sold sth/ sth be sold to sbshow sb. sth. 拿某物给某人看 sb be shown sth/ sth be shown to sb teach sb. sth. 教某人某物 sb be taught sth/ sth be taught to sb tell sb. sth.告诉某人某情况 sb be told sth/ sth be told to sbbuy sb. sth. 为某人买某物 sb be bought sth/ sth be bought for sb make sb. sth.为某人制作某物 sb be made sth/ sth be made for sb 例 1:同义句转换7My parents gives me a birthday present every year! (变被动语态,两种表达)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________解析:答案 I am given a birthday present by my parents every year. A birthday present is given to me by my parents every year. 分别把宾语 me 和 a birthday 作为主语。例 2:He told us a story.(变被动语态,两种表达)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________解析:答案 We were told a story(by him)或 A story was told to us by him.分别以 we 和 a story 做主语,主语谓语动词的形式以及时态。知识点 4:感官动词 see,hear,watch,feel,notice 及使役动词 let, make, have 等,动词后省略 to 不定式,变为被动语态时,应加上不定式符合 to.例:I always see the boys play in the park. (变成被动语态)The boys are always seen to play by me in the park.例 1:He was made ___ a lot of work. A. do B. to do C. did D. doing 解析:答案 B。make 的用法是 make sb do sth,在被动的情况下,需把省略的不定式 to 还原。所以被动形式为 be made to do sth。例 2:He was seen something from the shop . A. steal B. to steal C. to be stolen D. stealed 解析:答案 B。see 的用法,see sb do sth 和 see sb doing sth,被动态是 sb be seen to do sth 和 sb be seen doing sth,所以根据选项来看,这里选择 B。知识点 5:一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。 例:We can't laugh at him. →He can't be laughed at by us.例 1:翻译1. 从来没有听说过这件事情。_______________________________________________________2. 我妹妹由奶奶照顾的很好。_______________________________________________________答案:1. Such a thing has never been heard of before. 2. My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 例 2:单选题1. I think much attention ____your pronunciation.A. must be paid to B. ought to paid to C. must pay to D. should be paid 解析:答案 A。首先 attention 作主语,后面需接被动语态,所以先排除 B 和 C。又因为 pay attention to 这个动词短语,在被动语态时,后面的 to 不可以丢掉,所以选 A。2. Our teacher ______ carefully. A. should be listened to B. should be listen C. be listened D. is listened 解析:答案 A。首先 our teacher 作主语,后面表示“被听” ,需接被动语态,又因为是单数,所以先排除C。又因为 listen to 这个动词短语,在被动语态时,后面的 to 不可以丢掉,所以选 A。8【课堂总结】【课后作业】一:选择题( )1._____ a new library _____ in our school last year? A. Is; built B. Was; built C. Does; build D. Did ; build ( )2. An accident ____ on this road last week. A. has been happened B. was happened C. is happened D. happened ( )3.Cotton(棉花) ____ in the southeast of China. A. is grown B. are grown C. grows D. grow ( )4.So far, the moon ____ by man already. A. is visited B. will be visited C. has been visited D. was visited ( )5.A talk on Chinese history _____ in the school hall next week. A. is given B. has been given C. will be given D. gives ( )6.How many trees ____ this year? A. are planted B. will plant C. have been planted D. planted ( )7.A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now. A. are doing B. are being done C. has been done D. will be done ( )8.--When ___ this kind of computers______? --Last year. A. did; use B. was; used C. is; used D. are; used ( )9.The Great Wall ____ all over the world. A. knows B. knew C. is known D. was known ( )10.Who _____ this book _____? A. did; written B. was; written by C. did; written D. was; written Keys:1. B 2. D 3.A 4. C 5. C 6.C 7.B 8.B 9.C 10. B二:用所给动词的适当形式填空1. The students _____ often _____(tell) to take care of their desks and chairs. 2. The old man is ill. He must______ (send) to the hospital. 3. Vegetables, eggs and fruits_________ (sell) in this shop. 4. What _______ knives ______ (make) of ? They_______________(make) of metal(金属) and wood. 5. Can the magazine ________ (take) out of the library? 6. The room _____________ (clean) by me every day. 7. The stars can’t _____________ (see) in the daytime. 8. Some flowers _______________ (water) by Li Ming already. 9. This kind of shoes __________ (sell) well. 10. The whole mountain _________ (cover) by the snow.我的收获:1、 2、我的疑惑:1、2、9Keys: 1.are told 2. be sent 3. are sold 4.are; made , are made 5. be taken 5. is cleaned 7.be seen 8. have been watered 9. sells 10. is covered三、句子翻译1. 残疾人不应被轻视。2. 这些孩子被照顾的很好。3. 安全的重要性必须被关注。4. 这个问题将会被讨论。答案:1. The disabled shouldn’t be looked down upon.2. The children are taken good care of.3. The importance of the safety must be paid attention to.4. The question will be talked about later. 四、用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空1 English _____(speak)all over the world.2 The song ______(write) by him 2 yeas ago.3 The pictures_____(take) by him tomorrow.4 The film _____(show) here twice.5 The computer _____(can use ) in the room.6 The article _______(translate) into many languages since it was published.7 The room ______(paint) now.8 That clock ______(call) Big Ben.9 Last week I ____(ask) about English culture.10.The food _____________ (smell) delicious.答案:1.is spoken 2.was written 3.will be taken 4.has been shown 5.can be used6.has been translated 7.is being painted 8.is called 9.was asked 10.smells五、单项选择( )1. Good books ____ again and again.A. should be readed B. should be read C. must read D. ought to read ( )2. The children ____ by the nurse.A. were looked B. looked after C. were looked after D. looked ( )3.
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