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初高中英语衔接课程讲义:第四章 句子的成分和基本句型.doc

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初高中英语衔接课程讲义:第四章 句子的成分和基本句型.doc
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第四章 句子的成分和基本句型句子成分:组成句子的各个部分叫作句子成分。英语的句子成分和中文的句子成分大致相同,可分为:主语,谓语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,宾语补语。一、主语——表明句子里所谈的是:“什么人”或“什么物” ,主语常用名词、代词或相当于名词的词或短语充当。例如:Lily likes her new bike.(名词) 莉莉喜欢她的新自行车。He gets up early every day.(代词 ) 他每天都起得很早。To learn English well is not easy.(不定式短语)学好英语不容易。二、谓语——说明主语“做什么” 、 “是什么”或“怎么样” ,英语中谓语只能用动词充当。例如:We work hard.我们努力工作。The boy caught a bird. 那个男孩逮住一只鸟。He is my father. 他是我父亲。They all look fine. 他们都很好。谓语和主语在人称和数方面必须保持一致。例如:I am reading. You are reading. He\She is reading. We are reading.三、宾语——宾语是动作行为的对象。由名词、代词或相当于名词或代词的词或短语充当,和及物动词一起构成谓语,说明主语“做什么” 。例如:Tom bought a story-book.(名词)汤姆买了一本故事书。I saw him yesterday. (代词)昨天我看到他了。He wanted to have a cup of tea. (不定式短语)他想要一杯茶。直接宾语和间接宾语——有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,一个指人,一个指物,指人的叫作间接宾语,指物的叫直接宾语。合称双宾。例如:He gave me some ink . 他给了我一些墨水。间接宾语 直接宾语 Our teacher told us an interesting story. 老师给我妈讲了一个有趣的故事。间接宾语 直接宾语四、表语——说明主语“是什么”或“怎么样” ,与连系动词一起构成谓语,表语由名词、形容词、或相当于名词或形容词的词或短语等充当。例如:My sister is a nurse.(名词)我的姐姐是一名护士。They were at home.(介词短语)他们在家里。She got angry. (形容词)她生气了。Her grandfather is over eighty years old.(数词)她的祖父八十多岁了。五、定语——定语是修饰名词或代词的,可以作定语的除形容词外,还有名词、代词、数词、介词短语或相当于形容词的词或短语等。例如:This is a green cup.(形容词)这是一个绿色的杯子。Are these students your classmates? (代词)这些学生是你班的吗?Winter is the coldest season of the year.(介词短语)冬天是一年中最冷的季节。I have something important to tell you.(不定式)我有重要的事情要告诉你。The people here are very friendly.(副词)这里的人们非常友好。注意:形容词作定语时通常放在被修饰的词之前。而介词短语、不定式短语或副词等作定语时则放在被修饰的词之后。六、状语——状语是修饰动词、形容词、或副词的,有的修饰全句。可以作状语的主要是副词和介词短语或相当于副词的词或短语等。例如:You are quite right .(副词) 你非常正确。Mr.Wu comes to the school by bike. (介词短语) 吴老师骑自行车上学校。She will arrive in Beijing on Monday. (介词短语)她将于星期一到达北京。He stopped to have a look. (不定式短语)他停下来看了看。七、宾语补足语——有些及物动词的宾语后边还需要有一个补足语,意思才能够完整。宾语和它的补足语构成复合宾语。例如:We call her Xiao Li.宾语 宾语补足语You must keep the room clean and tidy.宾语 宾语补足语John asked me to help him with his Chinese.宾语 宾语补足语I will have my hair cut tomorrow.宾语 宾语补足语We saw the boy playing basketball on the playground just now.宾语 宾语补足语句子成分巧记歌诀主谓宾表定状补, 七种成分记清楚。句子主干主谓宾(表) ,枝叶成分定状补。定语修饰主宾表, 宾语之后常有补。主谓人称数一致, 状语位置最灵活。Exercises:指出下列句子中划线部分的成分。1.We all study hard at English.A. 主语 B. 谓语 C. 宾语 D.表语2.Betty likes her new bike very much.A. 主语 B.谓语 C.宾语 D.表语3.My brother is a policeman.A. 主语 B.谓语 C.宾语 D.表语4.Were you at home last night? A.定语 B.状语 C.宾补 D.表语5.Winter is the coldest season of the year.A 定语 B.状语 C.宾补 D.表语6.He often walks in the park.A.定语 B.状语 C.宾语 D.表语7.Mary asked me to help her yesterday.A.定语 B.状语 C.宾补 D.表语8.He bought me a nice present last week.A.宾语 B.直接宾语 C.间接宾语 D.宾补9.His parents are doctors.A.宾语 B.表语 C.谓语 D.定语10.I’ll get you some tea now.A.宾语 B.直接宾语 C.间接宾语 D.宾补11.My mother told us an interesting story last night.A.表语 B.直接宾语 C.间接宾语 D.宾补12.He has read the book twice.A.主语 B.谓语 C.表语 D.宾语13.They seemed unhappy when they heard the news.A.表语 B.谓语 C.宾语 D.定语14.Do you have something to eat ?A.状语 B.定语 C.宾语 D.宾补15.We made him our monitor.A.宾语 B.定语 C. 状语 D.宾补简单句的基本句型: 由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)所构成的句子叫简单句。根据句子的基本结构,简单句分为 5 种基本句型:1.S+V;(主语 + 不及物动词)I can swim. 我会游泳。主语 谓语(不及物动词)Everything changes. 万物都在变。主语 谓语The plane has already arrived. 飞机已经抵达。主语 谓语2.S+V+O;(主语++及物动词+宾语)I like English. 我喜欢英语。主语 谓语 宾语They are reading books . 他们在看书。主语. 谓语 宾语He bought a computer last week. 他上周买了台电脑。主语 谓语 宾语3.S+V+P;(主语+连系动词+表语)My mother is a scientist. 我母亲是个科学家。主语 谓语 表语She looks young. 她看上去很年轻。主语 谓语 表语The food tastes very delicious. 这食物尝起来很香。主语 谓语 表语4.S+V+IO+DO;(主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)My mother bought me a dictionary yesterday. 我母亲昨天给我买了本字典。主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语Can you give me the math book? 你能给我那本数学书吗?谓语 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语Will you tell us something about your school life? 你给我讲讲你们的学习生活,好吗?谓语 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语5.S+V+O+Oc;(主语+及物动词+宾语+补语) We must keep our classroom clean and tidy. 我们必须保持教室干净、整洁。主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语My mother asks me to speak English as much as possible. 我母亲要求我尽可能多地讲英语。主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语I heard her singing happily in the room just now. 刚才我听到她在房间里高兴地唱着歌。主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语简单句五种基本句型巧记歌诀:英语句子万万千,五大句型把线牵。句型种类看动词,后接成分是关键。系词之后接表语,不及物后无需连。及物又可分三类,单宾双宾最常见。还有宾语补足语,各种搭配记心间。Exercises:指出下列句子的基本类型1.They are listening.2.My mother is fifty now.3.I have bought three books.4.My friend gave me a birthday present.5.I painted the wall white.6.The boss often makes the workers work twelve hours a day.7.They arrived at six o’clock.8.The map is on the wall9.Children often sing this song.10.Mr Wu teaches us English.11.She showed her friends all her pictures.12.I find him a lovely boy.请朗读以下句子,划分下列句子的成分,并指出他们分别属于简单句中的哪种。1. Our country consumes a large number of plastic bags.2. The super-thin bags are the main source of white pollution.3. We should encourage people to return to carrying cloth bags.4. The new rule came out.5. Enviornmental groups welcome the new rule.6. They can stop using plastic bags.7. What is particularly positive is that it involves public participation.8. Shops don’t offer free plastic bags to their consumers.9. Hong Kong and Australia are considering measures to curb plastic bag litter.10. Chinese consumers have gotten used to free plastic shopping bags.
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