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生物工程(生物技术)专业英语翻译.doc

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生物工程(生物技术)专业英语翻译.doc
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生物工程专业英语1Lesson One(4学时)Inside the Living Cell: Structure andFunction of Internal Cell Parts教学目的:使学生掌握细胞的组成结构(各种细胞器以及它们在细胞中的位置),Cytoplasm: The Dynamic, Mobile Factory细胞质:动力工厂Most of the properties we associate with life are properties of the cytoplasm. Much of the mass of a cell consists of this semifluid substance, which is bounded on the outside by the plasma membrane. Organelles are suspended within it, supported by the filamentous network of the cytoskeleton. Dissolved in the cytoplasmic fluid are nutrients, ions, soluble proteins, and other materials needed for cell functioning.生命的大部分特征表现在细胞质的特征上。细胞质大部分由半流体物质组成,并由细胞膜(原生质膜)包被。细胞器悬浮在其中,并由丝状的细胞骨架支撑。细胞质中溶解了大量的营养物质,离子,可溶蛋白以及维持细胞生理需求的其它物质。The Nucleus: Information Central(细胞核:信息中心)The eukaryotic cell nucleus is the largest organelle and houses the genetic material (DNA) on chromosomes. (In prokaryotes the hereditary material is found in the nucleoid.) The nucleus also contains one or two organelles-the nucleoli-that play a role in cell division. A pore-perforated sac called the nuclear envelope separates the nucleus and its contents from the cytoplasm. Small molecules can pass through the nuclear envelope, but larger molecules such as mRNA and ribosomes must enter and exit via the pores.真核细胞的细胞核是最大的细胞器,细胞核对染色体组有保护作用(原核细胞的遗传物质存在于拟核中)。细胞核含有一或二个核仁,核仁促进细胞分裂。核膜贯穿许多小孔,小分子可以自由通过核膜,而象mRNA和核糖体等大分子必须通过核孔运输。生物工程专业英语2Organelles: Specialized Work Units(细胞器:特殊的功能单位)All eukaryotic cells contain most of the various kinds of organelles, and each organelle performs a specialized function in the cell. Organelles described in this section include ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex, vacuoles, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plastids of plant cells.所有的真核细胞都含有多种细胞器,每个细胞器都有其特定功能。本节主要介绍核糖体,内质网,高尔基体系,液泡,溶酶体,线粒体和植物细胞中的质体。The number of ribosomes within a cell may range from a few hundred to many thousands. This quantity reflects the fact that, ribosomes are the sites at which amino acids are assembled into proteins for expo
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