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1中学英语介词的分类及用法I 介词分类:1 简单介词 about, across, after, against, among, around, at, below, beyond, during, in, on2 合成介词 inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without3 短语介词 according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to4 双重介词 from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between 5 分词转化成的介词considering(就而论 ), including6 形容词转化成的介词like, unlike, near, next, oppositeII. 常用介词区别:1 表示时间的 in, on, at at 表示片刻的时间,in 表示一段的时间,on 总是与日子有关2 表示时间的 since, from since 指从过去到现在的一段时间,和完成时连用,from 指从时间的某一点开始3 表示时间的 in, after in 指在一段时间之后,after 表示某一具体时间点之后或用在过去时的一段时间中4 表示地理位置的 in, on, to in 表示在某范围内,on 指与什么毗邻,to 指在某环境范围之外5 表示“在…上”的on, in on 只表示在某物的表面上,in 表示占去某物一部分6 表示“穿过”的through, across through 表示从内部通过,与 in 有关,across 表示在表面上通过,与 on 有关7 表示“关于”的about, on about 指涉及到,on 指专门论述8 between 与 among的区别 between 表示在两者之间,among 用于三者或三者以上的中间9 besides 与 except 的区别 besides 指“除了 …还有再加上 ”,except 指“除了,减去什么” ,不放在句首10 表示“用”的 in, with with 表示具体的工具,in 表示材料,方式,方法,度量,单位,语言,声音11 as 与 like 的区别 as 意为 “作为,以…地位或身份” ,like 为“象…一样” ,指情形相似12 in 与 into 区别 in 通常表示位置(静态) ,into 表示动向,不表示目的地或位置2介词的句法功能:介词不能独立在句中做成份,介词后必须与名词、代词、或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成份,表示人、物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之间的关系。1、作定语:The book on the table is mine.2、作状语:We have breakfast at seven.(表时间) ;They were late for meeting because of the heavy rain.(表原因) ;They started the machine by pressing the button.(表方法)3、作表语:My dictionary is in the bag.4、作宾语补足语:I found him in the office.(二)主要介词区别1、表示时间的 at, in, on: at 表示片刻的时间,如: at 8 o’clock ,常用词组有:at noon, at night, at midnight, at the end of, at that time, at the beginning of, at the age of, at Christmas, at New Year 等。in 表示一段的时间,如:in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in October, in 1998, in summer, in the past, in the future 等。on 总是跟日子有关,on Monday, on Christmas morning, on the following, on May Day, on a warm morning 等。2、表示时间的 since 和 from:since 表示从过去到现在的一段时间的过程,常与现在完成时连用。from 表示从时间的某一点开始,不涉及与现在的关系。一般多与现在时、过去时、将来时连用。如:I hope to do morning exercises from today./ We have not seen each other since 1995.3、表示时间的 in 和 after:两者都表示“在(某个时间)之后,区别在于 in 表示“在(一段时间)之后” ,而 after 则表示 “在(某一具体时间点之后) ”,in 短语和将来时态连用,after 短语和过去时态或将来时态连用。如:We’ll be back in three days./ After seven the rain began to fall./ What shall we do after graduation?注意: after 有时也可以表示在一段时间之后(常用在过去时里) 。如:After two months he returned.4、表示地理位置的 in, on, to:in 表示在某范围内, on 指与什么毗邻,to指在某环境范围之外。如:Changchun is in the northeast of China./ Mongolia is on the north of China./ Japan is to the east of China.5、表示“在……上”的 on 和 in:on 只表示在某物的表面上,而用 in 表示占去某物一部分。 如:There is a book on the piece of paper./ There is an interesting article in the newspaper./ He dug a hole in the wall.6、表示“穿过……”的 through 和 across:through 表示从内部通过,与in 有关;across 则表示从一端至另一端在表面上的通过,与 on 有关。如: Water flows through the pipe./ The old man walked across the street.7、in the corner, on the corner, at the corner:in the corner 表示在角落里,in 指角的内面;on the corner 表示“在角上” ,on 指的不是内面,也不是外面,而含内外兼有之意;at the corner 指“在拐角处” ,at 指的是拐角外附近的外3面。如:The lamp stands in the corner of the room./ I met with him at the street corner./ He sat on the corner of the table.8、in the end, at the end of, by the end of:in the end 作“最后” 、 “终于”解,可单独使用,后不接介词 of;at the end of 表示“在……末梢” ,“到……尽头” ,既可指时间,也可以指地上或物体。不可单独使用;by the end of 作“在……结束时” , “到……末为止”解,只能指时间。不可单独使用。如:In the end they reached a place of safety./ At the end of the road stands a beautiful garden./ They decided to have an English evening at the end of this week./ by the end of last month he had finished the novel.9、表示“关于”的 about 和 on:两者都有“关于”的意思,不过前者为一般用词,而后者为较正式的“论述” 。如:He came to tell me about something important./ He wrote a book on science.10、between, among:一般说来,between 表示两者之间,among 用于三者或三者以上的中间。如:You are to sit between your father and me./ He is always happy among his classmates.注意: 但有时说的虽然是三个以上的人或东西,如果强调的是两两相互间接关系,适用于 between。如:Agreements were made between the different countries. 在谈到一些事物或一组事物,而把它们视为分居两边时用between。如: The little valley lies between high mountains.。在谈事物间的差别时,总是用 between。如:They don’t know the difference between wheat, oats and barley.11、besides, except, but, except for:besides 指“除了……还有,再加上” 。如:All went out besides me.;except 指“除了,减去什么” ,不能放在句首。如:All went out except me.;but 与 except 意思近似,表示“除了……外”经常用在 no, all, nobody, anywhere, everything 等和其他疑问词后面。如:I never saw him reading anything but the newspaper.;except for 表示“如无……就,只是”表明理由细节。如:His diary is good except for a few spelling mistakes.。12、表示“用”的 in 和 with:表示工具的“用” ,用 with,而表示材料、方式、方法、度量、单位、语言、声音等的“用” ,用 in。如:He is writing a letter with a pen./ He wrote the letter in pencil./ We measured it in pounds./ Read the text in a loud voice./ Tell me the story in English.13、in charge of 和 in the charge of:两者都表示“由谁负责、照顾、管理” 。区别在于:in charge of 后接被照管的人或物,而 in the charge of 后面则跟照管的人。如:Who is in charge of the project?/ The project is in the charge of an engineer.。14、as, like:as 作“作为” 、 “以……地位或身份”解。如:Let me speak to you as a father.(事实是父亲) ;like 作“象…… 一样”解。如:Let me speak to you like a father.(事实上不是父亲) 。15、in front of 和 in the front of:in front of = before,是“在……前面”的意思(不在某物内) ; in the front of 则是“在……前部”的意思(在某物内) 。如:There is a desk in front of the blackboard./ The boy sat in the front of the car.。16、in, into:into 表示动向,不表示目的地或位置。如:We walked into the 4park.;in 通常表示位置。如:We walked in the park;in 和 drop, fall, put, throw, break 等终止性动词连用时,也可以表示动向。如: I have put the coin in (into)mypocket.我把硬币放进衣袋。练习: 介 词1. The teacher is writing ____ a piece of chalk on the blackboard while the students are writing ____ink in exercise books.A. with, in B. in, with C. in, in D. with, with2. The worker can make chairs ____ wood, and also can make paper ____ wood.A. from, of B. of, from C. of. of D. from, from3. Mary dropped in ____ Mr Smith, but he wasn' t at home, so she went to drop in ____ Mr Smith's office.A. on, on B. at, at C. on. at D. at. on4. The teacher is not only strict ____ his pupils but also strict ____ his own work.A. with, with B.in,in C. in, with D. with, in5. His grandfather died ____ the wound that the enemy soldier had given him .and then his grand-mother died ____ hungry and cold.A.from,of B.of,from C.from,from D.of.of6. If you run ____ two hares you will catch neither.A.into B.after C.off D. out of7. This is a common mistake ____ students.A. between B.over C. among D. about8. My father began to work ____ a bus driver when he was twenty years old.A.for B.to C.at D.as9. _____ hearing the news, I was wild ____ joy.A. At, in B. On, with C. After, by D. /, over10.I don' t think Xiao Li is ____ the other students ____ mathematics.A. after, on B. after, with C. behind, in D. behind, at11. Nobody knows it ____ me.A. except for B. except that C. besides D. but12. The window is never opened ____ in summer. A. but B. except C. except for D. but for13. It happened ____ the Long March.A. during B.in C.at D.for14. We go to school ____ a bike.A.in B.on C.by D.ove15. It's very kind____ you to repair the bike ____ me.A.for.for B.of,of C.of,forD.for,of16. Fresh air is good ____ your health.A.at B.for C.of D.to17.The boy is waiting ____ his sister and they will go to the hospital to wait ____ 5their sick mother.A.for,on B.on,for C.for,for D.on.on18.The group is made up____five students. And they are studying hard to make up____ the lost time.A.of,of B.for,for C.of,for D.for,of19.The PLA man saved the boy ____ death.A. of B.from C.to D.on20. He will come ____ three days.A.before B.after C. in D. later21. He went to Beijing and returned ____ three days.A. in B. before C. later D. after22. He will return____ three o'clock.A.after B.in C.on D.at23. He wrote the article ____ three days.A.at B.in C.on D.by24.I agree ____ what you said.A.to B.on C.with D.at25. Do you agree____ this plan (arrangement)?A.at B.with C.on D.to26. Finally they agreed ____ the terms of the contract.A.on B.to C.with D.at27. Do you often hear____ your brother?A. of B. from C. out of D. about28.1 heard ____ the book long ago, but I have never read it.A. out B.from C.of D.with29. The plane flew ____ the city. A. across B.past C. through D.over30. We walked ____ the Tian An Men Square to the Museum of Chinese History.A. across B. through C.by D.past31.I was wandering ____ the streets when I caught sight of a tailor's shop.A. across B. through C.byD.past32. Our bus drove ____ the Great Hall of the People.A. across B. through C. past D.over33. ____ the sun, nothing would grow.A. For B.With C. Under D. Without34. The teacher is busy ____ teaching.A.with B.for C.on D.of35. The teacher is busy ____ correcting papers.A. for B.in C.on D.of36. We left Xi' an _.___ a very hot summer afternoon.6A. on B.in C.during D.by37. She felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming____ her.A. but B. except C. except for D. without38. His teacher was angry ____ him ____ his being late.A.at,with B.at,for C.with,for D.with,about39. My father was disappointed ____ the news.A. by B. about C. at D. on40. Mr Wang went to Nanjing ___October,1998 and came back home ____the morning of Nov. 5.A.at;in B.on;at C.in;on D.by;from41 .My uncle lives ____ 105 Huanghe Street. His room is ____ the fifth floor.A.at;on B.td;at C.on;in D.of;to42. I don't think you can work out the maths problem ____ the teacher's help.A. since B. unless C. because D. without43. He is running ___the wind towards the east of the station ___Tom is running ____ the right.A. down; and; on B. against; while; on C.for;with;in D. with; while; to44. In Hangzhou Mr Green was so struck ___the beauty of nature that he stayed ___another night.A.at;on B.with;at C.for;in D.by;for45. Many people are still ____ the habit of writing silly things ____ public places.A.at;at B.in;in C.into;of D.during;at46. - Do you go there ____ bus? - No, we go there ____ a train.A. in; on B.on;on C.by;in D.by; with47. I made the coat ____ my own hands. It was made ____ hand, not with a machine.A. in; in B.in; with C. with; by D. with; with48. The trees ____ front of the house are ____ the charge of Old Li.A. in; in B. at; in C. in; by D. from; in49. The old man died ____ cold ____ a cold night.A. from; at B.of;in C.of;on D. for; during50. Does John know any other foreign languages ____ French?A. except B. but C. besides D. beside51. He looked quite healthy ____ he was ____ the age of seventy.A. when; at B. because; in C. if; for D. though; at52. - How long has the bookshop been in business? -____1982.A. After B.In C.From D.Since53. Did you have any trouble ____ the post office?A. to have found B. with finding C. to find D. in finding754.To tell you the truth, I have nothing to do ____ it.A.about B.with C.for D.of55. Something must be done to prevent our city ____ by thick smoke.A. to be polluted B. from polluting C. from being polluted D. polluting56.____ the students likes the paintings. Which is wrong?A. The teacher as well as B. Nobody but C. The teacher besides D. All except57. Henry,____ Mary and Tom, is coming to China for a visit. Which is wrong?A. together with B. like C. and not D. but in addition to58. Taiwan is ____ the east of Fujian.A. in B.at C.to D.on59. His father will be back from London ____ a few days.A.since B.in C.on D.after60. We offered him our congratulations ____ his passing the college entrance exams.A.at B.on C.forD.of61 .The word “write“ has the same pronunciation ____ the word “right“.A. of B.as C.to D.from62. The train leaves ____ 6: 00 p. m. So I have to be at the station ____ 5:40 p. m. at the latest.A. at; until B. for; after C.at;by D. before; around63. Go ____ the gate and you' 11 find the entrance ____ the park ____ the other side.A. through; to; on B. along ;of; on C. down; to; at D. up; of; by64. One ____ five will have the chance to join in the game.A. within B. among C. in D. from65. Because of her devotion _____ music, she has become friendly with Mr. Zhang.A. in B. to C. with D. on 66. What idea can a man who is blind from birth have_____ color?A. in B. / C. with D. of67. Some people say that we live _____ the age of computers.A. in B. at C. with D. for68. ---May I attend your lecture, Mr. Green? ---Welcome _____ open arms.A. with B. by C. in D. for69. _____ defeated, they didn't lose heart.A. In spite of B. Except for C. Though D. Until70. I saw Jack yesterday. He told me that he would stay here _____ the end of this year.8A. at B. by C. for D. till71.The train leaves at 6:00 p.m. So I have to be at the station ____5:40p.m.at the latest.A. until B. after C. by D. around ('97NMET 11)72. The boy ought to have gone to school ___, but he slept ___noon. A. in the morning, at B. that morning, at C. in that morning, until D. that morning, until ('93 上海)73. The doctor will be free ____. A. 10 minutes later B. after ten minutes C. in ten minutes D. 10 minutes after('92MET. 20)74. _____most students, she was always well prepared and never came to class late. A. Like B. As C. For D. To ('98上海高考题 2)75. Let's walk over ___the shop on the other side of the street. A. in B. to C. under D. by ('93上海)76. The number of the employees has grown from 1,000 to 1,200. This means it has risen ____20 percent. A . by B. at C. to D. with ('99 上海高考)77. ____production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. A. . As B. For C. With D. Through (2000NMET. 18)78. Does John know any other foreign language ___French?A. except B. but C. besides D. beside ('89MET. 13)79. I know nothing about the young lady ___she is from Beijing. A. except B. except for C. except that D. besides (2000 上海高考13)80. ---You are so lucky. ---What do you mean ____that? (2002年春招)A. for B. in C. of D. by全国各省市高考试卷中的介词试题:1(全国卷)There were a lot of people standing at the door and the small girl couldn’t get _____.A. between B. through C. across D. beyond2.(北京卷 ) --- When do we need to pay the balance? --- __________ September 30.A. In B. By C. During D. Within3.(上海春 ) More and more young people are fond ___ playing tennis nowadays.A. on B. to C. in D. of4.(辽宁卷 ) People have always been curious how living things on the earth 9exactly began.A. in B. at C. of D. about5.(四川卷 ) ---Can he take charge of the computer company?---I'm afraid it's ________ his ability.A. beyond B. within C. of D. to6.(江西卷 ) After the earthquake,the injured were cared _________ in the hospitals or taken by air to the hospitals in the neighbouring cities.A. of B.for C. after D. with7.(福建卷 ) Sorry, Madam. You’d better come tomorrow because it’s ______ the visiting hours.A. during B. at C. beyond D. before8.(江苏卷 ) This new model of car is so expensive that it is _______ the reach of those with average income.A. over B. within C. beyond D. below9.(安徽省 ) It’s quite me why such things have been allowed to happen.A.for B.behind C.against D.beyond10





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