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美国文学课件Ralph Waldo Emerson.ppt

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美国文学课件Ralph Waldo Emerson.ppt
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,,An American essayist, lecturer, and poet, who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.,,,New England Transcendentalism,Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882),Introduction to Transcendentalism and Emerson,,A philosophic and literary movement that flourished in New England, particularly at Concord (1836-1860), as a reaction against 18th century rationalism. This romantic, idealistic, mystical, and individualistic belief was more a cast of thought than a systematic philosophy The soul of each individual is identical with the soul of the world, and latently(潜伏地) contains all that the world contains.Through belief in the divine authority of the soul’s intuitions(直觉) and impulses, based on this identification of the individual soul with God, there developed the doctrine of self-reliance and individualism, the disregard of external authority, tradition, and logical demonstration, and the absolute optimism of the movement.Among transcendentalists' core beliefs was the belief in an ideal spiritual state that “transcends“ the physical and empirical and is realized only through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions,Transcendentalism,Intuition, rather than reason, was regarded as the highest human faculty. Fulfillment of human potential could be accomplished through mysticism or through an acute (敏锐的)awareness of the beauty and truth of the surrounding natural world. Transcendentalists believed that God is inherent in nature and in human beings and that each individual has to rely on his or her own conscience and intuition for spiritual truths.,Major Concepts of Transcendentalism1. It stressed the power of intuition. 2. It placed spirit first and matter second.3. It took nature as symbol of spirit or God.4. It advocated the permeation of Over-soul.5. It stressed unity of humanity and nature.6. It stressed individuality.,He founded a Transcendentalists' Club and on September 19, 1836, he held the
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