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英语语法名词和动词.ppt

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英语语法名词和动词.ppt
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语法 Grammar,名词n.,(一)概述,名词是表示人、地方、事物或抽象概念名称的词,可以说名词是万物之名称。它们可以是: 人的名字 Li Ming, Tom ,Gina 地方名称 China, London ,England 职业称呼 teacher, doctor ,worker 物品名称 pencil, dictionary ,pencil-case 行为名称 study, invention 抽象概念 history, grammar,你还能想到什么呢?,(二)名词的分类,专有名词 &普通名词,可数名词 &不可数名词,,1.专有名词 主要指人名、地名及某些类人和事物专有的名称。 如:Mary,Beijing,Americans, English,May, Saturday, Easter Gone with the Wind…2.普通名词 除专有名词外,其它都属于普通名词。 如: boy,classroom,book, bag, aunt, family, juice, milk, age, childhood…,分类:专有名词(√) or 普通名词(×)?,Saturday, tea, Zhanghua, rain, West Lake,enemy, computer, beauty, Mrs. Green weather, peace, ice-cream, Russians, Journey to the West,√,√,√,√,√,√,×,×,×,×,×,×,×,×,1.可数名词( countable noun)/ [ C ] 可以分清个体,以数目来计算的,有复数形式。 如:book, girl, ruler, room, apple, box, bus, watch,day, zoo…2.不可数名词( uncountable noun)/ [ U ] 不可以分清个体,不能以数目来计算,只有单数形式。 如: water, milk, coffee, tea, rice, bread, work,study, love,分类:可数名词(√) or 不可数名词(×)?,boy, knife, peace, potato, wind, tomato, hero, music,pleasure, map, radio, technology, desk, egg,√,√,√,×,√,√,√,√,√,×,×,×,×,√,当然,也有特殊的哦~!,1.既可以当可数名词又可以当不可数名词:可数 不可数 glass paper time orange advice tin iron …,,玻璃杯,眼镜,玻璃,报纸,试卷,纸张,次数,时代,时间,橙,橘子,橙汁,橙色,劝告; 建议,通知,公函,消息,锡,罐头,铁,熨斗,在中文是可数,英文却不可数: 如:money , bread ,hair ,meat, furniture,rice ,news …,因此,平时要多积累哦~!,可数名词的复数形式,1.规则变化: ①一般情况 在词尾加-s: desk→desks ;day→days; girl→girls ②以s, x, ch, sh结尾的词 在词尾加-es: bus →buses; box→boxes; watch→watches ③以辅音字母加y结尾的词 变y为I再加-es: family→families factory→factories party→parties ④以f或fe 结尾的词 变f或fe为v再加-es: knife→knives; life→lives; wife→wives; half→halves,Important !!!,Let’s practice~!,I. 写出下列名词的复数形式: house ________ 2. village ________3. map __________ 4. orange _________ 5. bag ___________ 7. dish __________ 8. family ___________ 9. boy ___________ 10. monkey __________ 11. box __________ 12. knife __________ 13. class __________ 14. factory _________ 15. leaf__________ 16. dictionary __________ 17. watch _________,houses,villages,maps,oranges,bags,dishes,families,boys,monkeys,boxes,knives,classes,factories,leaves,dictionaries,watches,2.不规则变化: 1)以o结尾加-es:potato→potatoes tomato→tomatoes hero→heroes Negro → Negroes… 2)字母a变e:man→men, woman→women, Frenchman→Frenchmen, policeman-policemen…3)字母oo变ee: tooth→teeth, foot→feet, goose→geese…,但:German→ Germanshuman →humans,4)单复数同形: sheep→sheep, deer→deer, fish→fish Chinese-Chinese, Japanese →Japanese cattle →cattle…5)其他: child→children, mouse→mice, medium →media, basis →bases…,不同国籍的人的复数形式:,1)加-s: Australian Australians Russian Russians Italian Italians Greek Greeks American Americans Indian Indians Canadian Canadians German Germans 2)变a为e: Englishman Englishmen Frenchman Frenchmen 3)单复数同形: Chinese Chinese Japanese Japanese Swiss Swiss,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Exercises~!,1. match __________ 2. man _________ 3. German __________ 4. tomato _________ 5. policeman ________ 6. kilo __________ 7. human _________ 8. potato ___________ 9. Chinese __________ 10. shelf __________ 11. Japanese _______ 12. American________ 13. life ___________ 14. tooth __________ 15. wife ___________ 16. foot ___________ 17. knife __________ 18. sheep __________ 19. half ___________ 20.key_____________,matches,men,Germans,tomatoes,policemen,kilos,humans,potatoes,Chinese,shelves,Japanese,Americans,lives,teeth,wives,feet,knives,sheep,halves,keys,3.合成名词的复数形式:有主体时,主体变为复数father-in-law fathers-in-law (岳父,公公) 无主体时,结尾加“ s ”grown-up grown-ups (成年人)go-between go-betweens (媒介者;中间人) 如果其中有man或者woman,则两个都要变复数woman doctor women doctors man doctor men doctors,,,,,,Can you try???,把下列名词变复数形式: looker-on woman singer sister-in-law man cook passer-by housewife bride-to-be woman doctor schoolroom,lookers-on,women singers,sisters-in-law,men cooks,passers-by,housewives,brides-to-be,women doctors,schoolrooms,名词 n. Period 2,1、orange_______ 2、class_________ 3、text ________ 4、monkey_________ 5、piano________ 6、child_________ 7、shelf ________ 8、bed__________ 9、country________ 10、family_________ 11、toy __________ 12、foot ___________ 13、Japanese_______14、radio___________ 15、photo_________ 16. army___________17.cattle__________ 18.Australian________,Brainstorm~!,oranges,classes,texts,monkeys,pianos,children,shelves,beds,countries,families,toys,feet,Japanese,radios,photos,armies,cattle,Australians,Let’s learn more~!,不可数名词的量的表达:,可以加上一个表示数量的修饰词来表示它的数量,如:a piece of, a cup of, a bag of, a glass of, a kilo of… 一张纸 a piece of paper 三张纸 three pieces of paper 一包大米 a bag of rice 十包大米 ten bags of rice *可数名词也可以这样表达量,但要用复数形式: a box of books five bags of apples ten kilos of oranges,也就是短语里面可数名词要变复数的都变复数哦~!,常用量词总结,a glass of 一玻璃杯 a cup of 一杯 a bottle of 一瓶 a bag of 一包,一袋 a box of 一盒;一箱 a piece of 一张(一片,块) a kilo of 一公斤;一千克 a basket of 一篮 a pair of 一对,一双,一副 a group of 一群,一队,一组,Let’s try~!,1、三杯水 2、五杯茶 3、一公斤米 4、二十箱书 5、三篮子蔬菜 6、八双鞋子 7、十杯牛奶 8、五块肉 9、一副眼镜,three glasses of water,five cups of tea,a kilo of rice,twenty boxes of books,three baskets of vegetables,eight pairs of shoes,ten glasses of milk,five pieces of meat,a pair of glasses,名词所有格:,1) 一般情况加 -’s: children’s books 儿童图书 today’s paper 今天的报纸(2) 带词尾-s的复数名词只加 (’): girls’ school 女子学校 the Smiths’ car 史密斯家的小汽车(3)注意以下情况: Tom’s and Jim’s rooms 汤姆和吉姆(各自)的房间 Tom and Jim’s room 汤姆和吉姆(共同)的房间,一.用名词所有格填空: 1.They are going to their ________ home. (grandparents) 2.The _________ shoes are behind the door.( boy) 3.This shop sells _________ clothes only. ( men) 4.Those are my ______ cars. ( friends) 5.We are cleaning the _______ stables. (horses),Exercises,grandparents’,boys’/boy’s,men’s,friends’,horses’,6. Do you know where this _______ handbag is ? ( lady) 7. Many of my ________ houses were robbed. (neighbors) 8.The ________ uniforms are red. ( player) 9.These are the __________ toys. ( children),lady’s,neighbors',players’,children’s,1. ______ room is next to their parents’. A. Kate’s and Joan’s B. Kate’s and Joan C. Kate and Joan’s D. Kate and Joan2.June 1 is _______. A. children’s day B. children’s Day C. Children’s Day D. Children’s day 3. --- Whose room is this? --- It’s _______. A. Li Ming B. Li Ming’s C. Li Mings D. Li Mings’ 4.The woman over there is ______ mother. A. Julia and Shelley’s B. Julia’s and Shelley’s C. Julia and Shelley D. Julia’s and Shelley,二.选择填空:,English is spoken by many people in the world. 主语 This is a pencil-box. 表语 I like English, but I like Chinese better. 宾语 Our English teacher is drinking water. 定语 Mr. Black, our teacher, is from England. 同位语 I am going to see a film this evening. 状语 Miss Wang is considered a good teacher. 补语主语,表语,宾语,定语,同位语,状语,补语,,名词的功能,Exercises P33,1.主语 2.表语 3.状语 4.同位语 5.宾语 6.定语 7.补语,Review: 一.变复数:1. Chinese __________ 2. shelf __________3. Russian _________ 4. American________5. life ___________ 6. tooth __________ 7. deer ___________ 8. piano__________ 9.mouse__________ 10.goose__________ 11.hero__________ 12.Swiss__________,Chinese,shelves,Russians,Americans,lives,teeth,deer,pianos,mice,geese,heroes,Swiss,一玻璃杯 一茶杯 一瓶 一包,一袋 一盒;一箱 一张(一片,块) 一公斤;一千克 一篮子 一对,一双,一副 一群,一队,一组,a glass of,二、常用量词总结,a cup of,a bottle of,a bag of,a box of,a piece of,a kilo of,a basket of,a pair of,a group of,1. Today is September 10th. It's ________ Day. A. Teacher B. Teacher's C. Teachers' D. Teacher' 2. This is ________ ball. It's not ________ . A. the boy's, girl's B. the boy's, the girl's C. the boy, the girl D. boys', girls 3. This year, ________ is on May 9th. A. my mother's brithday B. my mothers' brithday C. my mothers brithday D. my mothers's brithday 4. These are ________ books. Li Lin bought some at the Sun Bookstore and Jill bought some at the Blue Sky Bookstore. A. Li Lin's and Jill B. Li Lin and Jill's C. Li Lin's and Jill D. Li Lin's and Jill's,三、名词所有格,动词 v.,语法 Grammar,一、概述,动词是表示动作或状态的词。 如: help,see,go,come, run, fly, look, seem, get, become,can,may…,动词的基本形式,1.动词原形 2.第三人称单数 3.现在分词 4.过去式和过去分词,Important~!,第三人称单数:,,过去式与过去分词(规则变化),Exercises 按要求写出动词的形式:1.wash 2.match 3.stop 4.make 5.read 6.play 7.watch 8.guess,第三人称单数,现在分词,过去式,过去分词,原形,washes,washing,washed,washed,matches,matching,matched,matched,stops,stopping,stopped,stopped,makes,making,made,made,reads,reading,read,read,plays,playing,played,played,watches,watching,watched,watched,guesses,guessing,guessed,guessed,9.study 10.finish 11.go 12.snow 13.carry 14.teach 15.do 16.say,原形,第三人称单数,现在分词,过去式,过去分词,studies,studied,studied,studying,finishes,finishing,finished,finished,goes,going,went,gone,snows,snowing,snowed,snowed,carries,carrying,carried,carried,teaches,teaching,taught,taught,does,doing,did,done,says,saying,said,said,动词 Period 2&3,Let’s review what we learned yesterday~!,1.destroy 2.catch 3.dance 4.worry 5.get 6.wash 7.sing 8.come,原形,第三人称单数,现在分词,过去式,过去分词,destroys,destroyed,destroying,catches,catching,caught,caught,dances,dancing,danced,danced,worries,worrying,worried,worried,gets,getting,got,got,washes,washing,washed,washed,sings,singing,sang,sung,comes,coming,came,come,destroyed,动词的时态,一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,现在完成时,现在进行时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时,1、一般现在时的标志词:every…时间状语(如every day),on Sundays, at the weekend, often, always, sometimes, usually,没标志等。 如:She does her homework every day.My father usually goes to work by bus.2、一般过去时的标志词:yesterday; “in + 过去年、月份”,last…短语;…ago短语;just now, once(从前)。 如:I went to see a film yesterday.She worked in that factory last year.,用适当的动词形式填空:Exercises Ⅰ,1. There ______ a telephone call for you just now. (be) 2. People usually _____ (eat) dinner in the evening . 3. His sister always_____(go) to school at 7:00 a.m . 4.Tom and Mary ________ (come) to China last month. 5.Jenny and Danny sometimes______(play) games in the afternoon . 6.Mike __________(not go) to bed until 12 o’clock last night.,was,eat,goes,came,play,didn’t go,7.My mother _________ (not do) housework yesterday. 8. She ____________(not visit) her aunt two days ago. 9. There _____ (be) no one here a moment ago. 10. Lin Tao ______ (like) his new sweater . 11. There ________( be not) any hospitals in my hometown (家乡) in 1940. 12. Where _____you______(have)lunch every day?,didn’t do,didn’t visit,was,likes,weren’t,do,have,3、 一般将来时的标志词:tomorrow (morning…); next… 时间状语;soon; “in+一段时间”;“in + 未来年、月份”;before long Mary will go shopping tomorrow. Jane is going to travel abroad in two days.4、 现在进行时的标志词: now; these days; look (at…); listen (to…)等 Look! The cat is chasing the mouse. My sister is doing her homework now.,Exercises Ⅱ~! 1.He ___________(come) back in a week. 2.She__________(be)a conductor of a train soon. 3.Listen! She ____________(sing )in the classroom. 4. Li Ming ________(be) ten years old next year. 5.Look!The boy over there _______(play) a model plane. 6.China __________(become) a modern and strong country before long.,will come,will be,is singing,will be,is playing,will become,7.We often______(buy)books and things like that in the shop. 8.I ______(leave)in a minute. I _____(finish)all my work before I ______ (leave). 9.----What are you doing?----I_________(do) my homework. 10. The day after tomorrow they ________(watch)a volleyball match. 11.They ________(hold) a birthday party this Sunday. 12.______you _______(work) hard from now on?,buy,will leave,will finish,leave,am doing,will watch,will hold,Will,work,5、现在完成时的标志词: already; yet; just; ever; never; “for +一段时间”,“since…短语或从句”等 I have already spent all of my money. We have seen that film before.,Exercises Ⅲ~! I already (see) the film. I____ (see) it last week. 2. — he (finish) his work today?— Not yet.3. — you (be) to Hong Kong? — Yes, I ___ (be) there twice. 4. My father just (come) back from work. He is tired now. 5. — Where's Li Ming?— He (go) to the teacher's office.,have,seen,Has,finished,Have,been,have been,has,come,has gone,saw,6. I (work) here since I (move) here in 1999. 7. So far I (make) quite a few friends here. 8. — How long the Wangs (stay) here ? — For two weeks.,have worked,moved,have made,have,stayed,Remember? What have we learned? Let’s review again~!,Exercises Ⅳ,用动词的适当形式填空: 1. Tom ____________ (not listen) to the radio every morning. 2. I __________ (come) to see you again before long. 3. ______ your uncle ________ (have) a meeting last Friday? 4. How many classes ______ you _______ (have) every day? 5. It's seven in the evening, Tom's family _____________ (watch) TV. 6. Listen! Who _________(sing)in the next room?,doesn’t listen,will come,Did,have,do,have,are watching,is singing,7. Don't make a noise. Grandma _________(sleep) 8. Sometimes he _________(help)his mother with the housework. 9. We ___________ (have) a meeting at that time. 10. Tom ___________ (not have) breakfast yesterday morning. 11.Mr Wang ___________ (teach) us maths since 1990 12. ______ your father _____ (go) to work by bike every day?,,is sleeping,helps,were having,didn’t have,has taught,Does,go,1. Don't turn off the light I __________a report now. A. have been reading B. read C. am reading D. have read 2. John __________ the first party in his life tomorrow night. A. is given B. is giving C. has given D. has been giving 3. My uncle __________ to see me. He'll be here soon. comes B. is coming C. had come D. came,Exercises Ⅴ,4. I think she __________ right now. A. reading B. reads C. is reading D. read 5. Before long, he __________ all about the matter. will have forgotten B. will forget C. forgets D. forgot 6. He _____ a model plane when I came to see him.A. makes B. is making C. was making D. made 7. Look ! The boy students are _____ football while the girls are _____. playing… dance B. playing… dancing C. play… dancing D. play… dance,英语国际音标表(48个) 元音(20个),Review,辅音(28个),
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