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ASHRAE Whitepaper - 2011 数据处理环境散热指南.pdf

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ASHRAE Whitepaper - 2011 数据处理环境散热指南.pdf
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© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 1ASHRAE TC 9.9 2011 Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments – Expanded Data Center Classes and Usage Guidance Whitepaper prepared by ASHRAE Technical Committee (TC) 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces, and Electronic Equipment © 2011, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part; may not be distributed in paper or digital form; and may not be posted in any form on the Internet without ASHRAE’s expressed written permission. Inquires for use should be directed to publisher@ashrae.org. © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 ASHRAE TC 9.9 2011 Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments – Expanded Data Center Classes and Usage Guidance Whitepaper prepared by ASHRAE Technical Committee (TC) 9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces, and Electronic Equipment This ASHRAE white paper on data center environmental guidelines was developed by members of the TC 9.9 committee representing the IT equipment manufacturers and submitted to the voting members of TC 9.9 for review and approval. In this document the term ‘server’ is used to generically describe any IT equipment (ITE) such as servers, storage, network products, etc. used in data-center-like applications. Executive Summary ASHRAE TC 9.9 created the first edition of the ‘Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments’ in 2004. Prior to that the environmental parameters necessary to operate data centers were anecdotal or specific to each IT manufacturer. In the second edition of the Thermal Guidelines in 2008 ASHRAE TC 9.9 expanded the environmental range for data centers so that an increasing number of locations throughout the world were able to operate with more hours of economizer usage. At the time of the first Thermal Guidelines the most important goal was to create a common set of environmental guidelines that IT equipment would be designed to meet. Although computing efficiency was important, performance and availability took precedence when creating the guidelines and temperature and humidity limits were set accordingly. Progressing through the first decade of the 21 stcentury, increased emphasis has been placed on computing efficiency. Power usage effectiveness (PUE) has become the new metric to measure data center efficiency which creates a measurable way to see the effect of data center design and operation on data center efficiency. To improve PUE air- and water-side economization have become more commonplace with a drive to use them year-round. To enable improved PUE capability TC 9.9 has created additional environmental classes along with guidance on the usage of the existing and new classes. Expanding the capability of IT equipment to meet wider environmental requirements can change reliability, power consumption and performance capabilities of the IT equipment and guidelines are provided herein on how these aspects are affected. From the second edition (2008) of the thermal guidelines the purpose of the recommended envelope was to give guidance to data center operators on maintaining high reliability and also operating their data centers in the most energy efficient manner. This envelope was created for general use across all types of businesses and conditions. However, different environmental envelopes may be more appropriate for different business values and climate conditions. Therefore, to allow for the potential to operate in a different envelope that might provide even greater energy savings, this whitepaper provides general guidance on server metrics that will assist data center operators in creating a different operating envelope that matches their business values. Each of these metrics is described herein, with more details to be provided in the upcoming third © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 edition of the “Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments” Datacom Book. Any choice outside of the recommended region will be a balance between the additional energy savings of the cooling system versus the deleterious effects that may be created in reliability, acoustics, or performance. A simple representation of this process is shown in Figure 1 below for those who decide to create their own envelope and not use the recommended envelope for operation of their data center. Figure 1.Server Metrics for Determining Data Center Operating Environmental Envelope A flow chart is also provided to help guide the user through the appropriate evaluation steps. Many of these metrics center around simple graphs that describe the trends. However, the use of these metrics is intended for those that plan to go beyond the recommended envelope for additional energy savings. The use of these metrics will require significant additional analysis to understand the TCO impact of operating beyond the recommended envelope. The other major change in the environmental specification is in the data center classes. Previously there were two classes applying to ITE used in data center applications: Classes 1 and 2. The new environmental guidelines have more data center classes to accommodate different applications and priorities of IT equipment operation. This is critical because a single data center class forces a single optimization whereas each data center needs to be optimized based on the operator’s own optimization criteria (e.g. fulltime economizer use versus maximum reliability). Figure 1.Server Metrics for Determining Data Center Operating Environmental Envelope A flow chart is also provided to help guide the user through the appropriate evaluation steps. Many of these server metrics center around simple graphs that describe the trends. However, the use of these metrics is intended for those that plan to go beyond the recommended envelope for additional energy savings. To do this properly requires significant additional analysis in each of the metric areas to understand the TCO impact of operating beyond the recommended envelope. The intent of outlining the process herein is to demonstrate a methodology and provide general guidance. This paper contains generic server equipment metrics and does not necessarily represent the characteristics of any particular piece of IT equipment. For specific equipment information, contact the IT manufacturer. The other major change in the environmental specification is in the data center classes. Previously there were two classes applying to ITE used in data center applications: Classes 1 and 2. The new environmental guidelines have more data center classes to accommodate different applications and priorities of IT equipment operation. This is critical because a single data center class forces a single optimization whereas each data © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 center needs to be optimized based on the operator’s own criteria (e.g. fulltime economizer use versus maximum reliability). Introduction The first initiative of TC 9.9 was to publish the book, “Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments”.  Prior to the formation of TC 9.9, each commercial IT manufacturer published its own independent temperature specification. Typical data centers were operated in a temperature range of 20 to 21°C with a common notion of ‘cold is better’.  Most data centers deployed IT equipment from multiple vendors resulting in the ambient temperature defaulting to the IT equipment having the most stringent temperature requirement plus a safety factor.  TC 9.9 obtained informal consensus from the major commercial IT equipment manufacturers for both “recommended” and “allowable” temperature and humidity ranges and for four environmental classes, two of which were applied to data centers.  Another critical accomplishment of TC 9.9 was to establish IT equipment air inlets as the common measurement point for temperature and humidity compliance; requirements in any other location within the data center were optional. The global interest in expanding the temperature and humidity ranges continues to increase driven by the desire for achieving higher data center operating efficiency and lower total cost of ownership (TCO). In 2008, TC 9.9 revised the requirements for Classes 1 and 2 to be less stringent. The following table summarizes the current guidelines published in 2008 for temperature, humidity, dew point, and altitude. Table 1. ASHRAE 2008 Thermal Guidelines Class Equipment Environment Specifications Product Operation a, b Product Power Off b, c Dry Bulb Temperature (°C) Humidity Range, Non Condensing Maximum Dew Point (°C) Maximum Elevation (m) Maximum Rate of Change (°C/h) Dry-Bulb Temperature (°C) Relative Humidity (%) Maximum Dew Point (°C) Allowable Recommended Allowable (% RH) Recommended 1 15 to 32d 18 to 27e 20 to 80 5.5ºC DP to 60% RH and 15ºC DP 17 3050 5/20f5 to 45 8 to 80 27 2 10 to 35d 18 to 27e20 to 80 5.5ºC DP to 60% RH and 15ºC DP 21 3050 5/20 f5 to 45 8 to 80 27 3 5 to 35d, g NA 8 to 80 NA 28 3050 NA 5 to 45 8 to 80 29 4 5 to 40d, g NA 8 to 80 NA 28 3050 NA 5 to 45 8 to 80 29 © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 a. Product equipment is powered on. b. Tape products require a stable and more restrictive environment (similar to Class 1). Typical requirements: minimum temperature is 15°C, maximum temperature is 32°C, minimum relative humidity is 20%, maximum relative humidity is 80%, maximum dew point is 22°C, rate of change of temperature is less than 5°C/h, rate of change of humidity is less than 5% RH per hour, and no condensation. c. Product equipment is removed from original shipping container and installed but not in use, e.g., during repair maintenance, or upgrade. d. Derate maximum allowable dry-bulb temperature 1°C/300 m above 900 m. e. Derate maximum recommended dry-bulb temperature 1°C/300 m above 1800 m. f. 5°C/hr for data centers employing tape drives and 20°C/h for data centers employing disk drives. g. With diskette in the drive, the minimum temperature is 10°C. The primary differences in the first version of the Thermal Guidelines published in 2004 and the current guidelines published in 2008 were in the changes to the recommended envelope shown in the table below. Table 2. Comparison of 2004 and 2008 Versions of Recommended Envelopes Increasing the temperature and humidity ranges increased the opportunity to use compressor-less cooling solutions. Typically, the equipment selected for data centers is designed to meet either Class 1 or 2 requirements. Class 3 is for applications such as personal computers and Class 4 is for applications such as “point of sale” IT equipment used indoors or outdoors. These environmental guidelines / classes are really the domain and expertise of IT OEMs. TC 9.9’s “IT Subcommittee” is exclusively comprised of engineers from commercial IT manufacturers; the subcommittee is strictly technical. The commercial IT manufacturers’ design, field, and failure data is shared (to some extent) within this IT Subcommittee enabling greater levels of disclosure and ultimate decision to expand the environmental specifications. Prior to TC 9.9, there were no organizations or forums to remove the barrier of sharing information amongst competitors. This is critical since having some manufacturers conform while others do not returns one to the trap of a multi-vendor data center where the most stringent requirement plus a safety factor would most likely preside. The IT manufacturers negotiated amongst themselves in private resulting in achieving some sharing of critical information. © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 6From an end user perspective, it is also important that options are provided for multi- vendor facilities such as: Option 1 – use IT equipment optimized for a combination of attributes including energy efficiency and capital cost with the dominant attribute being RELIABILITY Option 2 – use IT equipment optimized for a combination of attributes including some level of reliability with the dominant attribute being ENERGY and compressor- less cooling The industry needs both types of equipment but also needs to avoid having Option 2 inadvertently increase the acquisition cost of Option 1 by increasing purchasing costs through mandatory requirements NOT desired or used by all end users. Expanding the temperature and humidity ranges can increase the physical size of the IT equipment (e.g. more heat transfer area required), increase IT equipment air flow, etc. This can impact embedded energy cost, power consumption and finally the IT equipment purchase cost. TC 9.9 has demonstrated the ability to unify the commercial IT manufacturers and improve the overall performance including energy efficiency for the industry. The TC 9.9 IT Subcommittee worked diligently to expand the Environmental Classes to include two new data center classes. By adding these new classes and NOT mandating all servers conform to something such as 40°C, the increased server packaging cost for energy optimization becomes an option rather than a mandate. Developing these new classes exclusively amongst the commercial IT manufacturers should produce better results since the sharing of some critical data amongst them has proven in the past to achieve broader environmental specifications than what otherwise would have been achieved. The next version of the book, “Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments, - Third Edition”, will include expansion of the environmental classes as described in this whitepaper. The naming conventions have been updated to better delineate the types of IT equipment. The old and new classes are now specified differently. © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Table 3. 2011 and 2008 Thermal Guideline Comparisons 2011 classes 2008 classes Applications IT Equipment Environmental Control A1 1 Datacenter Enterprise servers, storage products Tightly controlled A2 2 Volume servers, storage products, personal computers, workstations Some control A3 NA Volume servers, storage products, personal computers, workstations Some control A4 NA Volume servers, storage products, personal computers, workstations Some control B 3 Office, home, transportable environment, etc. Personal computers, workstations, laptops, and printers Minimal control C 4 Point-of-sale, industrial, factory, etc. Point-of-sale equipment, ruggedized controllers, or computers and PDAs No control New Environmental Class Definitions C
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