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TPO20听力解析.pdf

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TPO20听力解析.pdf
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www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 1 TPO20 listening 问 题解 析 注:红色标记为解题 突破 。 (编辑 整 理 by AlanHalo ) Section 1 Conversation 1 1. Why does the man go to talk to the woman? A. To find out if he can get extended borrowing privileges B. To find out if he needs to immediately return a book he borrowed C. To find out why he has to pay a library fine D. To find out why his borrowing privileges have been suspended 答案:B 解析: Librarian: And we are still asking you to bring the book back? Student: Uh-huh. Do I really have to? Student: Eh. no, it’s in my dorm room. These are books I want to check out today. Is it OK if I bring that one by in a couple of days? Librarian: Actually, the due day is tomorrow. After that, there’ll be a two dollar per day fine. But you need to return it today if you want to check out any books today. That’s our policy. Student: Oh, I see. 从以上 对话 可以 看出 ,男 生到图 书馆 来是 想询 问是 否需要 马上 归还 自己 所借 的书 。 2. What will the man probably do today? Click on 2 answers. A. Get photocopies of a book chapter B. Find out who requested his book C. Borrow additional books D. Renew the book Modern Social Problems 答案:AC 解析: Librarian: Well, we normally don’t do this, but because of the circumstances we can photocopy up to one chapter for you. Why don’t you do that for the one you are working with right now? And by the time you need the rest of the book, maybe it’ll have been returned. Student: Oh, that would be great. . . Student: Eh. no, it’s in my dorm room. These are books I want to check out today. Is it OK if I bring that one by in a couple of days? Librarian: Actually, the due day is tomorrow. After that, there’ll be a two dollar per day fine. But you need to return it today if you want to check out any books today. That’s our policy. Student: Oh, I see. 根 据 以 上 对 话 , 可 以 看 出 男 生 今 天 要 做 的 两 件 事 是 :1. 获 得 一 份 自 己 需 要 的 章 节 的 photocopies 2. 要借 出其 他的书 www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 2 3. What is the woman trying to explain when she mentions students who have lost their borrowing privileges? A. Why the man should not photocopy part of the book B. The reasons for one of the library’s policies C. What will happen if the man does not return the book D. The reason the man has to fill out a form 答案:C 解析: Librarian: Yeah, not a lot of people realize that. In fact, every semester we get a few students who would have their borrowing privileges suspended completely because they haven’t returned books. They are allowed to use books only in the library. They are not allowed to check anything out because of unreturned books. 从图书管理员的解释 中可 以看出,图书管理员 想讲 出因为没有按时归还 图书 而被暂搁 borrowing privileges 之后会 发生的 情况 。 4. How does the man probably feel at the end of the conversation? A. Annoyed that he has to pay a fine on the book B. Upset that he is losing his library privileges C. Glad that he can keep the book for two more weeks D. Less worried about having to return the book 答案:D 解析: 从对话 来看 ,男 生得 到了 自己想 知道 的答 案, 并且 可以拿 到 photocopies 来完 成文章 。 5. Why does the woman say this: (复听题) A. To make sure she understands what the man’s problem is B. To encourage the man to return the book to the library soon C. To check whether the man has already returned the book D. To see if the man is familiar with the library’s policy 答案:A 解析: 【复听 内容 】 Librarian: So you signed up for extended borrowing privileges? Student: Yeah. Librarian: And we are still asking you to bring the book back? Student: Uh-huh. Do I really have to? 从对话 中可 以看 出, 图书 管理员 重复 了男 生遇 到的 问题, 以确 认自 己是 否真 正了解 了情 况。 Lecture 1 6. What is the main topic of the lecture? A. The reasons people are not always truthful in conversations B. The need for greater regulation of language used in advertising www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 3 C. The need for maximum precision and detail in everyday conversation D. The role of certain rules in determining what a speaker means 答案:D 解析: Professor: Ok, the conventions or assumptions that govern conversation, these may vary from one culture to another, but basically, for people to communicate there is a . they have to follow certain rules. Like if I am talking with you and I start saying things that are not true, if you can’t tell when I am lying and when I am telling the truth, well, we are not going to have a very satisfactory conversation, are we? Why? Because it violates one of the Gricean Maxims, that’s a set of rules or maxims a philosopher name H.P .Grice came up with in 1970s. One of these Gricean Maxims is. well, I’ve already given you a hint. 从以上 讲解 及全 文来 看, 教授讲 解 了 Gricean Maxims 的多 个 方 面。 7. According to the professor, what helps speakers keep conversations from proceeding too slowly? A. The ability to make inferences according to the Gricean Maxims B. The ability to effectively distinguish truth from falsehood C. The willingness to acknowledge that a Gricean Maxim has been violated D. The willingness to ignore the Gricean Maxims on occasion 答案:A 解析: Professor: And this maxim of relevance is quite efficient to use. Even if I don’t spell out all the details, you can still make some useful logical inferences, namely, the shop is open and it sells coffee. If we actually have to explain all these details, conversations would move along pretty slowly, wouldn’t they? 从以上 讲解 可以 看出 ,make inferences 能 keep conversations from proceeding too slowly. 8. For each of the following, indicate whether or not it reflects one of the Gricean Maxims that the professor mentions. (Click on any choice that does and leave the rest unchecked.) Click on as many answers as apply. A. Try to make the topic interesting B. Avoid making claims that are false. C. Make comments as informative as necessary. D. Make as few assumptions as possible. E. Make comments relate to previous statements. 答案:BCE 解析: Professor: . “Do not say what you believe to be false.” That’s one of Grice’s Maxims of Quality as he called it. . But according to the maxim, my response should be relevant to your statement, . And another more interesting maxims is one of the so-called maxims of quantity, quantities of information, 从以上 讲解 可以 看出 ,与 教授讲 解 的 Gricean Maxims 的相 关选 项。 9. Why does the professor describe a letter of recommendation? www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 4 A. To point out differences between written statements and spoken statements B. To illustrate how people may be deceived in a business environment C. To show how violating a Maxim may contribute to a statement’s meaning D. To prove that lying is sometimes considered acceptable 答案:C 解析: Professor: . But there are times when people will violate these maxims on purpose. Let’s say a boss is asked to write a letter of recommendation for a former employee seeking an engineering job. The letter he writes is quite brief. Something like, uh, Mr. X is polite and always dresses quite neatly. So what does this really mean? . So, by violating the maxims, we .eh. but . it can be a way to be subtle or polite, or to convey humor through sarcasm or irony. 从 以 上 可 以 看 出 , 教 授 提 出 有 人 会 故 意 violate these maxims, 紧 接 着 举 例 a letter of recommendation, 为的 是说 明 violate a maxim 在表达 上能有 的作 用。 10. What does the professor imply about advertisers? A. They are less likely than politicians to violate a Gricean Maxim. B. They realize that consumers know whether an advertisement violates a Maxim. C. They often make use of the Gricean Maxims to express humor. D. They realize that consumers make false inferences from advertisements. 答案:D 解析: Professor: . Sometimes though people will violate maxims for another purpose: to deceive. . They think, hey, don’t blame us if our audience happens to draw inferences that are simply not true. 从以上 讲解 ,可 以看 出教 授认为 广告 业者 意识 到观 众会 make false inferences. 11. What type of Maxim does the professor illustrate with this example: (复听题) A. Manner B. Quality C. Quantity D. Relevance 答案:D 解析: 【复听 内容 】 Professor: No, I am not, am I? There is no connection at all, which feels wrong because you generally expect to find one. So one important maxim is simply: be relevant. And using the so-called Maxim of Relevance we can infer things as well, or rather the speaker can imply things and the listener can make inferences. 【复 听内 容 】 For instance, suppose you say you would really love to have a cup of coffee right now, and I say ‘there’s a shop around the corner’ 根据内 容可 以看 出, 教 授 提到 了 be relevant, 之 后举 例, 即 复听 内容, 进行 进 一步解 释。 Lecture 2 12. What is the lecture mainly about? www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 5 A. The effect of ice ages on the development of agriculture B. A theory about a change in Earth’s climate cycle C. Strategies to prevent Earth from entering another ice age D. Some effects of industrialization on Earth’s atmosphere 答案:B 解析: Professor: . however , for the latest interglacial period, the one we are in now, this pattern did not hold, that is, the concentration of carbon dioxide and methane dipped a little bit after, uh, uh, after peaking at the beginning, near the beginning of the interglacial period, but then it began to rise again. Um . What was different about this interglacial period than the other ones? . Now, scientists have tended to regard . the . uh . agricultural revolution as a beneficiary of the . uh . fortuitous shift in climate. 通过以上设问及 全文来看 ,教授的主题是 提出了个 理论,由于人类 的活动使 得 climate cycle 发生变 化。 13. What does the professor imply about Earth’s climate over the last several million years? Click on 2 answers. A. Ice ages have alternated with warmer periods. B. Recent ice ages have not been as cold as earlier ice ages. C. Interglacial periods have become cooler and cooler overtime. D. Previous interglacial periods were shorter than the current interglacial period. 答案:AD 解析: Professor: .It’s kind of ironic to think that absent that effect, it maybe that we would be heading into an Ice Age again. In fact, back in the 1970s, a lot of theorists were predicting that, you know, the climate would start to cool and we’d slowly enter into the new Ice Age. And then they were puzzled as to why it didn’t seem to be happening. 14. According to the professor, what factor is extending the duration of the current interglacial period? A. A shift in the locations of wetlands and forests B. The relatively mild temperatures of the most recent ice age C. The increased absorption of certain atmospheric gases by farm crops D. An increase in the quantity of certain gases in Earth’s atmosphere 答案:D 解析: Professor: . When you grow crops and uh, pasture your animals, one of the things you do is you cut down the forests. If you cut down the forests, when you burn the trees for fuel and don’t replace them with other trees, or when you just leave them to rot and don’t allow other trees to grow, you end up with a lot more carbon in the form of carbon dioxide getting into the atmosphere. Um . another gas associated with the spread of agriculture is methane. Methane forms in large concentration above wetlands, and as it turns out, the cultivation of certain grains creates vast areas of artificial wetlands, and probably drastically increases the amount of methane getting into www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 6 the atmosphere, over and above what would be there. 根据上 述讲 解可 知, 原因 是 some certain gases 在 大 气中 的 quantities 增加。 15. According to the professor, what activities associated with the beginnings of agriculture may have slowed or prevented the onset of a predicted ice age? Click on 2 answers. A. The clearing of trees B. The burning of fossil fuels C. The domestication of certain animals D. The cultivation of certain grains 答案:AD 解析: Professor: . When you grow crops and uh, pasture your animals, one of the things you do is you cut down the forests. If you cut down the forests, when you burn the trees for fuel and don’t replace them with other trees, or when you just leave them to rot and don’t allow other trees to grow, you end up with a lot more carbon in the form of carbon dioxide getting into the atmosphere. Um . another gas associated with the spread of agriculture is methane. Methane forms in large concentration above wetlands, and as it turns out, the cultivation of certain grains creates vast areas of artificial wetlands, and probably drastically increases the amount of methane getting into the atmosphere, over and above what would be there. 根据教 授的 解释 ,predicted ice age 的延 迟到 来是 由 于 carbon dioxide 和 methane 等 气体 在大气 中的 含量 增加 ,而 增加的 原因 从上 文 看 是因 为 the clearing of trees 和 the cultivation of certain grains. 16. What is the professor’s attitude toward industrialization? A. He thinks that its effect on Earth’s climate will decrease overtime. B. He is worried that it may speed the arrival of the next ice age. C. He thinks that it may reduce the effect of agriculture on Earth’s climate. D. He is unsure about its long-term effects on Earth’s climate. 答案:D 解析: Professor: . Um. so we are entering into uncharted territory now, in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, the concentrations of carbon dioxide that are now being put into the atmosphere as a result of industrialization and the use of fossil fuels 从 上 述 内 容 可 知 , 教 授 对 于 工 业 化 的 结 果 对 气 候 的 影 响 是 进 入 了 一 个 uncharted territory ,即未知的内 容。 17. What does the professor imply when he says this: (复听题) A. Theorists sometimes make careless predictions. B. Theorists were unaware of some of the effects of human activities. C. Technology of the 1970s was not sophisticated enough to detect the earliest stages of an ice age. D. Scientists in the 1970s overestimated the speed at which ice ages progress. 答案:B 解析: www.sharewithu.com 本文章由尚友原创或整理 7 【复听 内容 】 Professor: . In fact, back in the 1970s, a lot of theorists were predicting that, you know, the climate would start to cool and we’d slowly enter into the new Ice Age. And then they were puzzled as to why it didn’t seem to be happening. 讲 授在 前讲 述 了 human activities 的影响, 之后 说如 果 没有这 些影 响, 我们 也许 正在进 入 ice age, 接 着讲 述复 听内 容, 表示教 授认 为他 们并 未 将 human activities 考虑在内 。 Section 2 Conversation 2 18. Why does the professor want to talk to the student? A. To discuss her application to graduate school B. To discuss a possible internship at the school’s library C. To encourage her to increase the scope of her research project D. To suggest some changes to improve her research project 答案:C 解析: Professor: Well, good. The reason I wanted to talk to you was that while you were presenting you linguistics project in class the other day, well, you know, I was thinking you are a perfect candidate for the dean’s undergraduate research fund. 上文中 ,教 授很 明显 的提 到自己 的目 的是 鼓励 女生 申请 fund, 即 to increase the scope of the project. 19. According to the professor, what information should be included in the student’s application? A. The amount of money she will need for her research B. The amount of time she will need to complete her project C. A summary of research already conducted on the topic D. Reasons why she chose that particular topic 答案 :A 解析: Professor: .A brief description of your proposed project, and an estimated budget. 从上文 可知 , 教 授说 明申 请 的材料 包 括 brief of the project and
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