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美国历史(我们的故事).doc

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美国历史(我们的故事).doc
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第十二集黄金时代美国国力已达到鼎盛时期 America is at the height of its power.各种创新和发明把这个国家带入了 Innovation and invention will define一个科技日新月异社会空前繁荣的新时代 a new era of prosperity and technological wonder.一项发明以及随之而来的 One invention will change the world.历史上最大规模的通讯革命 Along with the biggest communications revolution将改变世界 ever seen.旧的威胁逐渐淡去 And while old threats fade,新的挑战将使美国经历前所未有的考验 new challenges will test America as never before.我们是前锋 也是先驱 we are pioneers and trailblazers.我们为自由而战 We fight for freedom.我们将梦想付诸现实 We transform our dreams into the truth.我们的奋斗将换来一个国家的新生 Our struggles will become a nation.第十二集 黄金时代70 年代的美国 在国际上 The 1970s, America is locked in陷于与另一个超级大国:苏联的对峙 a gloabal standoff with another superpower, the Soviet Union.冷战时期 It's the Cold War.共产主义与资本主义 Communism and capitalism为争夺意识形态霸主地位而冲突不断 clash in an ideological battle for supremacy.对许多人而言 这个时期充满了恐惧和不确定性 For many, it's an era of fear and uncertainty.核梦魇 Nuclear nightmares.到冷战结束时 By the end of the Cold War,两国所囤积的爆炸性武器 the rival countries will amass enough explosive firepower足以摧毁 100 万个广岛 for over a million Hiroshimas.冷战还存在另一个战场 太空竞赛 But the Cold War has another battlefield: the Space Race.当美国人率先将人类送上月球的时候 And when America claimed the prize by putting man on the moon,那个时代标志性的科技成果也日渐成熟 a technology that will define the era comes of age.电视 Television.1 亿 8 千 5 百万美国人共同守候在电视机前 185 Million Americans are united in front of their TV sets.现在再回看当时的影像 Looking back at those images now,我们还是会惊叹图像如此清晰 we marveled at the clarity of the picture.布莱恩·威廉斯 [NBC 晚间新闻主播]这可是从月球上传回来的实时画面啊 This was live from the moon, after all!科技的高度发展 令人叹为观止 It was the height of technology and we marveled at it.1940 年 整个美国只有几千台电视 In 1940, there are just a few thousand TV sets in the whole country到 1970 年 这个数字超过了 6000 万 By 1970, there are over 60 million.电视将成为塑造新时代的决定性角色 TV will play a defining role in shaping a new era.美国一向热衷于采用新科技 America has always tried to adopt new technologies.鲍勃·鲁兹 [前通用汽车公司副总裁]大家今天司空见惯的电视 Television, as we know it today,当初设想之时 这一定是个疯狂的主意 I mean, it was considered, think about this crazy idea.我们可以向美国任何地方传送动态的影像 We can send moving images to any place in the United States.但美国的辉煌 But America's been built正是源于科技发展与革新 on technological innovation and invention从蒸汽船和六发左轮手枪 到人手一辆的汽车 From steam boats and six-guns to automobiles for everyone.科技引领他们征服着这片大陆 It's conquered a continent with technology.然而纵观美国发展历史 But throughout the nation's history,真正起着决定性作用的是通讯技术的发展 it is communications technology that played a defining role.1865 年 1865,电报帮助亚伯拉罕·林肯率领的北方军 the telegraph help its President Abraham Lincoln在内战中取胜 win the war for the North.他几乎亲自掌控与指挥每一场战役 He virtually seize and can command every battle.1945 年 1945,艾森豪威尔麾下的资深通讯专家大卫·沙诺夫 David Sarnoff, Eisenhower's most senior communications expert,协助美国开发了电视机 helped develop television for America.美国无线电公司 大卫·沙诺夫研究中心 RCA 实验区到 1950 年 沙诺夫创立了 By 1950, Sarnoff creates世界上最大的电视广播网之一 one of the biggest TV broadcast networks in the world.NBC 国家广播公司电视不仅是一种新的娱乐方式 TV may be a new form of entertainment,更是当时最强大的通讯设备 but it's also the most powerful communications device in existence.阿伦· 索尔金 [剧作家]沙诺夫意识到 Sarnoff recognized that电视将成为一股强大的力量 there was going to be awesome power.但随之而来的 And that, with that awesome power--将是更为重大的责任 was going to come awesome responsibility.到 1970 年 美国公众收看电视的数量 By 1970, the American public is watching more television超过了所有其他国家 than any nation on earth.人们每天在电视前的时间均不下 5 小时 Over five hours a day for every man, woman and child.电视新闻节目的数量 There are more TV news programs也远超其他国家 than any country in the world.七成以上的成年人 Over 70% of the adult population每晚都收看电视新闻 watch the television news every evening.而当登月实况在电视上播出时 And when pictures of the moon landings are broadcast live,这已不仅是技术上的成功 it isn't just a technological success,而更象征着冷战中的胜利 it is a symbolic victory in the Cold War.但有场真正的战争 其实更加性命攸关 But there's a real war closer to American lives.越南战争 Vietnam.美国深陷东南亚的一场鏖战 A bitter conflict in Southeast Asia.美国惧怕共产主义风暴席卷这一地区 America fears communism will sweep the region想要阻止这一态势 and wants to stop its influence.但强大的美军与先进的武器 But the U.S. Military and all its technology却终不敌背水一战的游击队 comes up hard against determined guerrilla movements.为这场战争 And the war is being fought美国征召了几十万年轻士兵 by hundreds of thousands of drafted young Americans.我们召集了大量刚满 18 岁的孩子 We ask so much of our 18-year-olds跋涉到一个无异于野生丛林的陌生国度 to go over to a foreign land, the jungle no less与当地游击队作战 他们熟悉地形 and fight gorillas who are home on their turf并且对外来入侵非常反感 and don't like at all the invading army.参加越战的这代人 The generation that is fighting the Vietnam war正是婴儿潮一代 are the baby boomers.也是数量最为庞大的一代 The biggest ever American generation.逾五千万美国新生儿在战后 15 年间诞生 Over 50 million new Americans born in 15 postwar years.这数量庞大的一代人 This huge generation are不同于以往的任何一代 unlike any Americans who have come before,他们对于社会的态度和影响 and their influence and attitude toward society注定将改变整个美国的面貌 are destined to change the face of America.60 年代这代人的改变是必然的 The 1960s were inevitable.最伟大的一代[二战中的一代] The greatest generation came home固守着人生价值的信念凯旋 with fixed idea of what life should be about,汤姆· 布罗考 [原 NBC 新闻主播]他们忙着从战争的阴霾中走出 And they were so busy putting their own lives back together again回归原来的生活 in a traditional fashion根本无暇顾及下一代 that they weren't paying attention to细微而敏感的心理变化 the changing sensibilities of their children.美国每 10 到 15 年就会发生一次蜕变 America in a way reinvents itself every 10 or 15 years.而这种蜕变 And that reinvention is往往是被上一代人所恐惧与排斥的 always feared by the generation that came before.1969 年 6 月 June 1969,纽约州北部 upstate New York.伍德斯托克音乐节 Woodstock.这原本是一场容纳 10 万人的周末音乐会 A weekend concert for over 100,000 ticket-hoders,却挤满了近 50 万婴儿潮一代的乐迷 was over run by nearly half million baby boomers.还有 100 万在四周守候 Over a million more tried to get in.这是世界范围内空前盛大的音乐节 It is the world's biggest ever music festival并成为了婴儿潮一代年轻人的交际盛会 and become the boomer's coming out party,标志着美国新一代成为了社会的主流 a signal to America of the generational change taking place.我们原本 刻板拘泥 Coming from the society culture一本正经的社会文化 that was fairly buttoned up and prim and proper蒂姆· 甘 [时尚顾问]突然间闯入了伍德斯托克音乐节 to one that suddenly was what we had Woodstock.闯入了嬉皮士 We had hippiedom.闯入了自由性爱 We had free love.婴儿潮这代人 深深地影响了 Baby bombers had a huge tremendous impact玛格丽特·周 [喜剧演员]我们对世界的看法 对社会的看法 on how we view the world and how we view society.然而他们反抗的 But the baby boomers aren't just rebeling并不仅仅是其父辈的价值观 against their parents' values.他们开始试图用街头游行的方式 People begin to attempt to affect from the streets比弗利·盖奇 [耶鲁大学]向对外政策的最高制定者们施压 the highest levels of foreign policy.美军立即撤出印度支那婴儿潮的一代人想要越战结束 The baby boomers want an end to the Vietnam war,并在街上游行抗议示威 and they take their protest to the street.为自己的信仰挺身而出 The willingness to stand up for what you believe in,进行大规模的示威游行 in mass demonstrations of revolt,梅丽尔·斯特里普 [著名女演员 奥斯卡影后]这才是真正的美国精神 that's very American.在越战中 人们不愿违背自己的意愿 In the Vietnam war, people were unwilling to die,让我们的士兵回家为他们并不支持的战争卖命 for something they didn't believe in.“反抗“是美国民族性格上深深的烙印 Protest is deep in the American character.清教徒对旧世界及宗教迫害的反抗 The pilgrims against the old world and religious persecution.殖民地对宗主国及其苛捐杂税的反抗 The colonies against the British and their taxes.弗雷德里克·道格拉斯和哈莉特·塔布曼对奴隶制的反抗 Frederick Douglas and Harriet Tubman against slavery20 世纪 70 年代 1970s.数以千计的反越战抗议游行相继爆发 There have been thousands of anti-Vietnam war protests.俄亥俄州 肯特州立大学 Kent State University, Ohio.国民警卫队被调往镇压游行的 500 名学生 The National Guard are ordered in to control 500 protesting students.电视转播着这一切 Television is here watching.4 名学生中弹身亡 Four students are shot dead正是电视转播将画面传入千家万户 I think that that drove it home for a lot of Americans,观众得以直击现场 to see on their television,这使得大众群情激昂 义愤填膺 and to have this mass of people who felt so passionately about it.美国人相信 眼见为实 The images. You know, America is a very visual country.珍妮特·沃尔斯 [著名作家]越战期间首次实现了战事的电视转播 And because Vietnam is the first televised war,每一场战役 伤亡情况都有新闻报道 battles and casualty lists are daily news events.电视 将血淋淋的战争 Television brings the reality of the war展现在每个人眼前 into the nation's living rooms.就如同百年前 内战战地摄影师 Just as hundred years ago Civil War photographer揭露了战争的恐怖一般 revealed the true horror of war,如今 电视新闻节目开始颠覆整个国家 now TV news images begin to turn the nation.我们已经损失了 5 万余士兵 We had already lost over 50,000 soldiers,伤员更是不计其数 many more wounded than that.戴维· 鲍尔达奇 [犯罪推理小说作家]我想多数美国人已经意识到越战的无望 I think most Americans realized Vietnam was a hopeless cause.在越战中的投弹数量超过了整个二战 More bombs than were droped in the whole World War II.数千亿美元白白消耗 Hundreds of billions of dollars.但保留在大多数美国人记忆中的 But what the most Americans remember是他们在电视中看到的画面 are the pictures they see on their TV sets.目睹着西贡[今胡志明市] 的残兵爬上直升机 Watching people in Sigon clinging to helicopters丹尼尔·席尔瓦 [著名作家]落荒而逃 as we left in disgrace.这是一幅极不符合美国信念的画面 This is a profoundly unAmerican notion.1975 年 1975,越战终于结束了 the Vietnam War is finally over.越南退伍军人从多重意义上来讲 正是反战运动 In many ways it really was the anti-war movement改变了后世对于越战的印象 on the ground that shaped our story of Vietnam某种程度上 反战运动也是对战争的真实体验 and to some degree the actual experience of the war.对于许多婴儿潮时期出生的人来说 For many of the baby boomers,抗议和反叛是为了更为远大的目标 the protest and rebellion has a wider aim:即创造一种全新的生活方式 to create a completely new way of life.你可以反抗父母 反抗社会 You could rebel against your parents and rebel against society去创造属于你自己的乌托邦 while creating your own utopia,这是典型的 60 年代的理想 this is a very 60s ideal.打造一片可以放飞梦想的乐土 Creating a land where you can live your dreams这正是美国性格的一部分 is part of the American character.同时也是清教徒来到美国的动力 The reason that the pilgrims came to America.以及摩门拓荒者西进的原因 Why Mormon pioneers headed west.婴儿潮的一代并非在找寻新的大陆 The baby boomers aren't looking for a new land.而是想改变美国社会 They want to change American society,真正的革命是由伟大的爱来引导的释放所有政治犯 真理是囚禁不了的使其变得更加公平 make it a fairer place.60 年代末 70 年代初 As the 60s turn into the 70s,黑人行动主义 原住民土地所有权 black activism, native American land rights,释放黑豹党人同性恋权利 生态保护及女权主义 gay rights, ecology and feminism在游行的压力下被一一提上日程 burst on to the agenda and the streets.姐妹们联合起来 与压迫我们的制度作斗争婴儿潮一代重塑着美国社会 The baby boom generation shaped America,职场中为女性争取平等权利的运动 the movement for equality for women in the workplace随之发起 certainly came out of that.美国历史中的这一时期 There is a tiny moment in American history让美国女性重拾自信 gave a lot of confidence to American women,安妮特·戈登·里德 [罗格斯大学历史学教授]自由就是自由 Freedom is freedom.梅莉莎·埃瑟里奇 [歌手 作曲家]无论男女都是平等的 All men and women are created equal.我之前对水门事件一无所知 I had no prior knowledge of the Watergate break-in.我既未参与 I neither took part in也对随后的掩饰行为毫不知情 nor knew about any of the subsequent cover-up activities水门大厦民主党全国委员会1974 年 尼克松总统牵涉到 1974, President Nixon is implicated in the break in闯入其政敌总部并安装窃听设备的事件中 and the bugging of his political rivals headquarters.他被指控掩盖罪行 He's accused of covering up the crime.美国联邦法院国会启动了弹劾程序 Congress starts an impeachment process电视对此进行了现场直播 which transmits live on television.国家的最高首脑 Holders of the highest offices in the land面对着数百万观众接受质询 are subjected to a grilling watched by millions.尼克松政府因遭逢电视时代而一败涂地 The Nixon administration hits the TV age and losses,滚出去H.W.布兰茨 [德克萨斯大学教授]尽管在之前的美国历史中也存在着丑闻 There had been scandals previously in American history,但却从未像水门事件这样 but none that unfolded on television,在电视上迅速曝光 with the immediacy of the Watergate Scandal.水门丑闻所表现的 What was revealed by the Watergate Scandal官场腐败程度 was a level of internal corruption,欺骗程度 a level of deception与对美国民主的亵渎 and a real violation of American democracy当时就连美国政论家 that even critics of the American government都绝对想象不到 up to that point simply hadn't imagined.对于大多数人而言 It was the last nail in the coffin you might say of,戴维·M·肯尼迪 [斯坦福大学历史学教授 ]这是压垮公众信念的最后一根稻草 for many, many people of Americans confidence in their own society.我将在明天中午辞去总统之职 I shall resign the presidency effective at noon tomorrow.史上唯一一位在任上辞职的总统 The only president ever to resign the office.85%的美国家庭通过电视直播收看其辞职演说 His speech watched live by 85% of all American households.媒体与电视的自由显示了其真正的力量 Freedom of the press and TV showing their true power.媒体在水门事件中的力量 表明 I mean, the power of Watergate is saying我们需要自由媒体 you need a free press.索莱达·奥布莱恩 [CNN 首席主持人]如果没有自由的媒体 Because there are some things that you will not learn那么有些事情我们将永远不得而知 if you do not have a free press.电视见证了一位总统的下台 While television proves the downfall of one President,将美国推向危机 throws America into crisis,然而另一位总统将学会利用它 another will learn to use this new technology重塑美国人的信心 将美国带入新纪元 to rebuild American confidence and usher in a new era.70 年代末 80 年代初 As the 70s turn into the 80s特拉华的美国汽车工人联合会的工人亟需工作美国陷入困境 America feels bruised.中东石油危机 The Middle East oil crisis.对不起 没油了 油泵已关在伊朗的美国人质事件 American hostages in Iran.美国束手无策我们需要工作 恳请政府与国会马上行动起来调查表明 仅剩 22%的美国民众信任政府 Surveys show only 22% of Americans trust the government.失业和通货膨胀 Unemployment and inflation双双达到大萧条以来的最高水平 are both at the highest levels since the Great Depression.美国曾经历过经济低谷 America has endured economic downtimes before.上世纪 30 年代 In the 1930s,罗斯福采用积极的财政政策 Roosevelt tries to bring America out of its Great Depression将美国带出大萧条的阴霾 with government spending in new initiatives.同时 他充分利用了新媒体的力量 But he also harnesses the power of a new media--用广播直接传播到全国 radio-- to speak directly to the nation.富兰克林·罗斯福拥有神奇的魔力 Franklin Roosevelt had this truly mysterious capacity他在广播中的讲话 to speak through the radio in a way that戴维·M·肯尼迪 [斯坦福大学 ]不仅能吸引民众的注意 还能激发他们的感情 compelled not just the attention but the affection of影响千百万民众 millions upon millions of his countrymen.半个世纪之后 Now half a century later,一位新总统利用电视 a new President uses television重建整个国家的信心 in his attempt to restore the nation's confidence.我们怎能不信任我们伟大的祖国 How can we not believe in the greatness of America.又怎能不去行正义和必要之事 How can we not do what is right and needed去保护这世间最后的希望 to preserve this last best hope of man on earth.他被称为伟大的沟通者 His nick name was the great communicator.他的那种清晰的表达方式 He was able to articulate in a way戴维· 鲍尔达奇 [犯罪推理小说作家]能让人像认同自己美国人身份一样 认同他 that many people would accept as being innately American.H.W.布兰茨 [德克萨斯大学教授]美国人其实愿意相信 Americans wanted to believe他们的国家是美好而又强大的 that their country was good and strong.里根向他们肯定 “是的 我们美好而强大“ And Reagan spoke to them in a voice that said “Yes, we are“.同胞们 My fellow citizens,今晚我想和大家谈谈我们的未来 I would like to speak to you tonight about our future,谈谈一项有历史意义的伟大努力 about a great historic effort让“自由 公平 希望“这三个词 对每位美国公民 to give the words “freedom“, “fairness“ and “hope“ new meaning and power都有新意义和新力量 for every man and woman in America.具体来说 我想谈谈税务的问题 Specificly I want to talk about taxes.上世纪 80 年代是美国经济繁荣的新时代 The 1980s appear to be a new era of American financial prosperity.低利率和宽松的信贷政策的盛行 Low interest rates and the easy credit flows引领经济繁荣复苏 lead a bussiness boom.在这十余年间 Over the course of the decade,华尔街市场交易屡创新高 trading on Wall Street markets breaks records,道琼斯指数飙升了超过 200 个百分点 the Dow Jones Index rises more than 200 percent.80 年代末 By the 1980s,每年便有十万美国人跨入百万富翁的行列 100,000 Americans become millionaires every year.美国也曾历经过繁荣 There have been boom times before.石油热带来了廉价汽油 实现了汽车普及 The oil rush leads to cheap gasoline and cars for the masses.廉价钢铁促进了建筑业的繁荣 And cheap steel leads to a construction boom,城市迅速发展起来 builds new cities.80 年代的美国 Now in 1980s America,低息贷款刺激了消费 cheap credit creates a boom in consumers.信用卡是这个时期的象征 The credit card is the symbol of the
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