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英语专业四级语法(浓缩).doc

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英语专业四级语法(浓缩).doc
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一、时态、语态 1.表达将来时的形式:(1)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如:I’ll tell him when you will ring again. (宾语从句) 比较:I’ll tell him when you ring again. (状语从句)(2)在 make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的 that 从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time.(include 不能用 will include 或其他形式)2.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语:(1)by/between/up to/till +过去时间、since、by the time/when +表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door.Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced.(表示 1919 年时已发生的情况 )(2)by +将来时间、by the time/ when +谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks.I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.(3)by now、since +过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在 it is +具体时间 since/before 这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:The changes that had taken place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century. It is four years since John left school.(4)在 It is the +序数词/形容词最高级+that 的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation.(5)在 no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。3.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如:The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened.时态、语态答题思路:(1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案;(2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。二、不定式1.不定式做主语(1)引导逻辑主语的介词:不定式的逻辑主语一般由介词 for 引导,但下列表示人的性格行为特征的形容词做表语时, 不定式的逻辑主语则由 of 引导:absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, lazy, wicked, wrong。如:Experts say walking is one of the best w
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